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13 The performance measurement framework provides a vari- large number and types of agencies, rather than an in-depth ety of information that will be useful for different individuals examination of individual agencies; and within the organization. Examples of key uses of the frame- 2. Development of a performance measures framework and work include: ongoing testing of that framework against the research findings. · As a clearinghouse for information about key factors to address within capacity project development. The frame- This approach has allowed the project team to further tar- work provides introductory material on a wide range of get the outreach to address specific questions as they have topics that can help educate all levels of transportation staff arisen in the course of developing the framework, while also who will need to tackle challenges associated with a partic- helping to inform the evolution of the framework development ular project. For example, transportation practitioners with process throughout. limited experience in water quality or ecosystem analysis The remainder of this report describes the development of can find key sources for information about these topics. the framework and the research conducted: · As a source of performance measures. The primary purpose of the framework is to help practitioners in multiple disci- · chapter 2 describes the background research that supported plines find and define performance measures. The frame- the development of the performance measures framework work helps organize their thinking about measures and and its current status. · chapter 3 introduces the Performance Measurement Frame- provides clear definitions of these measures. Practitioners can easily select and refine measures to suit their individual work and describes its several components. · chapters 4 through 8 present information on each of the five needs. · As a means to develop a consistent evaluation process across areas of potential performance measurement identified as part of this efforttransportation, environment, commu- several phases of project development. Transportation agen- nity, economics, and cost. These sections provide back- cies often establish analytic procedures to help identify and ground literature, performance factors and measures for prioritize the transportation projects most worthy of con- considerations, and, for several areas, potential data collec- struction. In long-range planning and in programming, tion to consider. state DOTs and MPOs examine the overall transportation · chapter 9 summarizes the links between the performance system and make decisions about which programs and measurement framework and the collaborative decision- projects should be funded and at what levels. The frame- making process being developed as part of SHRP 2 Proj- work provides information on how measures can be used ect C01. at the various stages of the process to support these project identification and prioritization methodologies. Web Tool Approach and Organization The primary product of this research effort is a web tool. This tool includes a database of performance measures organized The SHRP 2 C02 research effort and performance measures around the several planning factors identified in five broad framework development evolved through the research process. areas (Table 1.1). The research effort began with a broad-based examination of Within each of these factors, the web tool provides descrip- project prioritization processes at transportation agencies, tive information about the factor, performance measures to gradually shifting into more targeted analysis of specific issues evaluate the factor, and case studies that illustrate the use of to be addressed by the performance measures framework. many of these measures. Many of the factors included in this The first stage of the research effort involved a series of framework are interrelated and many measures could be in-depth agency (DOTs and MPOs) interviews to document included in more than one area. To make the web tool more current practices in capacity project selection and decision useful, measures have been applied to only a single factor. making (see chapter 3 for further discussion). Initial find- For each measure, the web tool provides a description of the ings indicated that many agencies had relevant approaches, measure, data that may be required to calculate the measure, but no single agency had developed an entire process that can the scale at which the measure is typically applied, and poten- inform the SHRP 2 C02 effort. As a result, the project team tial uses of the measure at various stages of capacity project determined that the most effective approach would involve a development (long-range planning, preprogram studies, pro- simultaneous effort of two tasks: gramming, environmental review, and design and permitting). The case studies offer examples of recent efforts by agen- 1. Targeted background research with a focus on identifying cies to employ measures in the specific factor areas. Many of a broad array of practices, processes, and measures across a the case studies are examples of more than one factor area,
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14 Transportation Environment Economics Community Cost Mobility Ecosystems, Habitat, Economic Land Use Cost and Biodiversity Impact Reliability Archeological and Cost-Effectiveness Water Quality Economic Cultural Accessibility Development Resources Wetlands Safety Social Air Quality Environmental Climate Change Justice Environmental Health Table 1.1. SHRP 2 C02 Performance Factors and are listed in each factor to which they apply. The case The web tool will be updated as additional SHRP 2 Capac- studies include a short description, the factor areas to which ity program projects are completed that address performance the case study applies, the agency responsible for the effort, measures within individual framework factor areas, such as and a link to more information, if available. economics and the environment.