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27 C H A P T E R 3 Performance Measurement Framework For any state, the process of deciding how, where, and when performance measures framework is intended to be flexible, to add highway capacity typically engages many stakeholders expandable, and modular. It can serve practitioners inter- in an array of policy, planning, fiscal, public involvement, and ested in improving or creating a comprehensive performance engineering activities that are staged over a lengthy time measures framework, but it also supports the needs of prac- period and involve consideration of many factors ranging titioners looking to capture the impacts on a specific factor, from environmental impacts to safety concerns. This section or focusing on a specific phase in the capacity project delivery describes the primary dimensions of the performance mea- process. surement framework developed for this project. Creation of a universally applicable performance measure- ment framework is possible because states' decisions about highway capacity follow the same general pattern and are Collaborative Decision-Making driven by many of the same basic concerns. Decision making Context Who, Why, and How often starts with consideration of broad, statewide needs, This framework supports a collaborative decision-making solutions, and goals. As consensus emerges, the focus of deci- process that is under development. The framework is based on sion making evolves toward specific consideration of local performance-based investment decision making or manage- project-level needs and solutions. Along this continuum, dif- ment processes models. Figure 3.1 summarizes the relation- ferent performance measures can be used at varying resolu- ship between the collaborative decision-making framework tions of detail to support decision making. and the performance measures framework. Creating a framework allows transportation practitioners The Collaborative Decision-Making Framework (CDMF) to customize the specific performance measures they use at provides the overall context for the Performance Measure- each stage of the highway capacity decision-making process ment Framework. The CDMF identifies key decision points to meet unique considerations. For example, sometimes eco- in the planning and project development process that could nomic impacts may be a primary concern; at others, environ- be improved by taking a more collaborative approach. The mental impacts may the primary issue. The framework helps Performance Measurement Framework helps to support the point practitioners toward the right performance measures to CDMF by identifying relevant performance factors and mea- help them make decisions. sures to consider at the various stages of planning and project The structure of the performance measurement framework development. is intended to offer flexibility. Capacity-related performance Performance measures hold promise as part of the collab- measures may be grouped in two ways; either according to orative decision-making tool kit that transportation practi- when during the capacity project delivery process they are tioners can use to make this process more manageable. During helpful, or according to what factors they help to consider the decision-making process, however, hundreds of perfor- during the capacity project delivery process. mance measures may be applicable at different resolutions of The highway capacity decision-making performance mea- detail. surement framework adopts these two dimensions as organiz- The framework described in this section offers practitio- ing principles. In the "capacity project delivery stages" ners a way to organize how they use performance measures dimension, performance measures are arranged according so they serve as an effective decision-support tool for exam- to their relevance for sequential stages in capacity project ining when, where, and how to add highway capacity. The delivery from long-range planning, through corridor planning,