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28 Collaborative Performance Decision-Making Framework Measures Framework How? How are projects developed? When? What detail resolution is KDP Context Sensitive Solutions required at each stage of the planning process? KDP Who? Who is responsible? What? What types of project impacts How are tradeoffs made are important to making between agencies and actors? informed decisions? KDP Fundamental objectives for project? Why? Are you meeting the goals you identified up front? Tracking projects throughout the process Figure 3.1. Relationship between performance measurement framework and collaborative decision-making framework. programming, environmental review, to project design. In High-Level Perspective Measure(s) offer insights on trends the "capacity decision-making factors" dimension, perfor- and issues at statewide or regional levels that are relevant to mance measures are arranged according to their relevance to senior DOT leadership, legislators, and the general public; critical categories of factors that influence decision making, Handful of Measures A small, but carefully chosen set of including transportation, environmental, community, and measures helps distill complex data into broad insights that economic factors. are relevant to policy measures; Reflective of Strategic Goals Measure(s) in the long- range plan relate to appropriate strategic goals such as con- Linking Measures to gestion relief, safety, or environmental quality; and Decisions When Accountable Implementation Focus Measures in the The performance measures identified within each of the fac- long-range plan provide targets from which the success of tors are intended to support key decisions throughout the the long-range plan can be gauged over its life span. phases of the project development process, including long- range planning, programming, corridor studies, environmen- Programming Stage tal review, permitting, and design. This section describes how performance measures can be used in each of these phases. Performance measures can support state DOTs' capacity- related programming activities. Programming describes the process by which state DOTs select and invest limited trans- Long-Range Planning portation funds in a list of projects that will be built in a set time- Performance measures can be used to support capacity-related frame, usually of about three to five years, and that is intended elements of a state DOT's long-range plan, particularly by to ensure resources go where they are needed most, including bringing leadership accountability to agencywide vision. The capacity needs. The mix of projects included in a state DOT's long-range plan is customarily a strategic document that program determines how well it is able to address priorities defines and builds support for a broad vision that responds to established in the long-range plan or other strategic documents. high-priority statewide transportation needs. Performance measures can improve a DOT's ability to As a "map" for policy-makers and their stakeholders, the make programming decisions that support achievement of long-range plan is made more effective by including per- strategic goals. The hallmarks of a good set of programming- formance measures that translate an agency's vision into level performance measures include several defining charac- measurable metrics that help DOT leaders gauge and guide teristics that together distinguish them from other areas statewide progress toward important goals and hold them where performance measures are used by DOTs: accountable to stakeholders. The hallmarks of good capacity- related long-range plan-level performance measures include Provide Insights on How to "Close the Gap" The program several defining characteristics that together distinguish is a DOT's tool to address gaps between current performance them from other areas where performance measures are and desired targets. Measures should inform decisions on used by DOTs: where to apply more resources.