Click for next page ( 46

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 45
45 SHRP 2 Framework Measure Specific Measure Applications Transportation Conformity Comparison of actual on-road Change in air quality conformity status due to increased emissions; transportation-related emissions in air quality non- Number of urban areas (or population in areas) classified as nonattainment attainment or maintenance region versus desired level of status; and emissions identified in state's air quality plan to ensure national ambient air quality standards are met or exceeded. Expected impact of new capacity investments on criteria pollutants. Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter Concentrations Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter Concentrations Contribution of projects to localized CO or PM violations in Contribution of projects to localized CO or PM violations in non- nonattainment and maintenance areas. attainment and maintenance areas. Case Study Highlight: Mn/DOT 2003 Statewide Transportation Plan Description: Minnesota's 2003 Statewide Transportation Plan and 2005 district-level plans comprise one of the nation's first comprehensive, performance-based state transportation planning efforts. The Statewide Plan sets a framework for long-range investment planning, with perfor- mance measures and targets in 10 policy areas. The district-level plans identify investment levels needed to meet targets and detail a prioritized, fiscally constrained 20-year implementation program. The statewide and district plans serve as the critical link between Mn/DOT's strategic goals and the capital investment program in the Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP). Mn/DOT employs regular performance monitoring to evaluate investment choices and adjust the state's investment program. Environmental measures are used to monitor impacts on air quality, water quality, land management, and streamlining of the environmental process. These measures are calculated on a statewide scale to support the goal of "protect(ing) the environment and respect(ing) community values." Sample Measures: Federal Compliance Standards: Outdoor levels of ozone, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter; Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicle in Minnesota; and Percent of Mn/DOT fuel consumption defined as cleaner fuels. Table 5.4. Environmental Measures Air Quality Factor Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation formance measure. The case study highlight illustrates how air sources; toxics exposure was measured in the Sacramento/I-5 Aerosol Reduce risk of damage to transportation infrastructure or Transect Study. disruption of transportation service due to global climate change; and Energy, Materials, and Waste Offset greenhouse gas emissions from transportation sources. The SHRP 2 C02 framework is primarily focused on the eval- uation of major highway capacity projects in planning, project Table 5.5 presents three broad performance measures to development, and environmental review. The considerations address these objectives and specific applications of each per- of energy, materials, and waste are generally addressed during formance measure. The case study highlight illustrates how design, construction, and operation of the transportation sys- the Puget Sound Regional Council measures greenhouse gas tem, and thus fall outside of the primary focus on this effort. emissions in their Vision 2040 plan. However, several general measures have been identified in these areas, as they are important complements to the other set of issues addressed in this factor area. Table 5.7 provides a set Environmental Health of measures consideration. Although the topic of environmental health is broad, this framework focuses on the issue of mobile source air toxics, a Environmental Data Gaps by-product of vehicle emissions and a well-documented con- and Opportunities tributor of cancer and noncancer human health problems. This is an emerging area of research. The evaluation of environmental impacts is one of the top priorities of the SHRP 2 C02 Performance Measurement Minimize near-roadway human health risk from air toxics. Framework. A set of potential data investments was evaluated for this area. Findings by planning factor are summarized Table 5.6 presents two broad performance measures to here. Additional detail on these data investments can be address this objective and specific applications of each per- found in Appendix B.

OCR for page 45
46 SHRP 2 Framework Measure Specific Measure Applications Greenhouse Gas Emissions Total amount of transportation- Expected change in greenhouse gas emissions as a result of capacity related pollutants that cause global climate change. investments (e.g., using EPA's Motor Vehicle Emissions Stimulator). Infrastructure Vulnerability Susceptibility of transportation Level of vulnerability (e.g., extremely vulnerable, vulnerable, not vulnerable) infrastructure to damage caused by environmental hazards to sea level rises expected as a result of climate change; associated with global climate change. Level of vulnerability (e.g., extremely vulnerable, vulnerable, not vulnerable) to storm frequencies and severity expected as a result of climate change; and Level of vulnerability (e.g., extremely vulnerable, vulnerable, not vulnerable) to temperature changes expected as a result of climate change. Carbon Sequestration Net change in quantity of carbon Sequestration capacity of existing vegetation; and stored in biomass located along transportation corridors Sequestration capacity of planned vegetation. as a result of construction and operations-related vegetation management practices. Case Study Highlight: Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Vision 2040 Description: PSRC's long-range transportation plan, Destination 2030, and regional transportation/land use plan, Vision 2040, were developed using an extensive array of performance measures addressing mobility, safety, land use, the environment, and other issues. The agency has implemented performance monitoring systems to continue to track transportation and land use trends in the region. Projects included in the region's TIP must be included in, or consistent with, Destination 2030. Sample Measure: Outcome Air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced; Measure Annual average emissions of greenhouse gases; and Data Source Puget Sound Clean Air Agency. Table 5.5. Environmental Measures Climate Change Factor SHRP 2 Framework Measure Specific Measure Applications Air Toxics Concentrations Impact of transportation Expected concentrations of mobile source air toxics as a result of capac- construction on concentrations of mobile source air toxics. ity investments. Air Toxics Exposure Proximity of vulnerable populations Number of housing units, schools, hospitals, and nursing homes within potentially affected by mobile source air toxics. 240 meters of existing or new right-of-way; Number of housing units, schools, hospitals, and nursing homes within 240 meters of a transportation facility right-of-way with significant truck volumes (i.e., over 10,000 trucks per day); Number of nursing homes within 240 meters of ROW; and Number of days that Pollution Standard Index is in an unhealthful range. Case Study Highlight: Sacramento/I-5 Aerosol Transect Study Winter Months 2003-2005 Description: The American Lung Association of Sacramento Emigrant Trails Task Force conducted this study to continue monitoring the air quality impacts of I-5, compare the data to other sites in California, and conduct a thorough study of aerosols on a particular community. During the period December 12, 2002 through January 16, 2003, fine aerosol mass, (fine liquid or solid particles suspended in the air) was collected continuously and measured every three hours along a nine site transect from west of Davis, California, to Shingle Springs, California. The fine PM2.5 aerosols were size segregated into either three or six size modes above 0.09 m diameter. Coarser aerosols were also measured at five of the sites. The direct impact of I-5 and a secondary roadway monitored on downwind sites was evident in all weather conditions. On many days, aerosol mass values were similar across the entire network, but with an enhancement at the sites downwind of I-5. Sample Measure: Levels of fine aerosol mass measured and compared at specific sites (museum, middle school site) and across entire network to understand impact on populations. Table 5.6. Environmental Measures Environmental Health Factor

OCR for page 45
47 Potential Framework Area Potential Measures Energy Consumption Final energy consumption in transport by mode and energy sources; and Share of final energy consumption in transport produced from renewable energy sources. Materials Amount of solid raw materials used in building transport infrastructure; and Amount of solid raw materials used in vehicle manufacture. Waste Total amount of nonrecycled waste generated by transport mode and by type of waste; Number of motor vehicles scrapped annually; Estimated annual garbage generation by transportation sector; Amount of wastewater produced in transport manufacturing industries or service infrastructures not treated in wastewater treatment plants; and Number of tons of recycled/waste materials used in construction projects. Note: Energy, materials, and waste were not specifically included as factors within the SHRP 2 C02 performance measurement framework but are included here as additional measures that may be broadly useful in evaluating transportation infrastructure. Table 5.7. Environmental Measures Energy, Materials, and Waste Water Quality Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program is one example of this). This model provides a more holistic context for analysis Analysis of the impacts of highway projects on water quality and joint planning of transportation improvement programs requires bringing together land, hydrology, and biological data, and watershed quality improvements. as well as information derived from planning efforts to identify There also may be opportunities at the federal level for col- sensitive areas and/or areas to be targeted for improvement. laboration between U.S. DOT, EPA, USGS, and other agencies Assessments may include proximity of the proposed highway to develop methodologies and tools for more sophisticated sim- project to receiving waters within identified water protection ulation capabilities for water quality (and other environmental) areas, encroachment on riparian or other sensitive areas, pro- impacts. jected increases in pollutant load due to the project (related to runoff, displacement, or hydromodification), impacts on com- pliance with established water quality standards, consistency Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Habitat with existing water resource plans, or impacts on impervious Highway project impacts in this area are typically considered surfaces (considering the highway itself as well as associated at the project level as part of the NEPA permitting process, induced development). though a few states have implemented broader approaches A wealth of information exists for water quality analysis, that go beyond looking at individual transportation projects including searchable national GIS data sets and query tools. and are integrated with planning efforts of environmental Key gaps for performance assessment are the lack of tailored and natural resource agencies. DOTs typically collect data on data sets and tools for assessing impacts of highway capacity road kill; other data used for analysis within this area (land- projects on watershed health and impervious surfaces. Data scape and ecosystem data, species data) come primarily from and tools also are needed for enhanced analysis of stormwater agencies outside of the DOT. Key data sources include EPA, management, beyond the existing focus on total maximum Fish & Wildlife, USGS, and NOAA at the national level; daily load (TMDL) assessment. Wildlife Action Plans and Natural Heritage Programs at the The greatest opportunities for progress in addressing data state level; and Ecoregional Conservation Assessments pro- gaps in the water quality area are through partnerships between vided by the Nature Conservancy. Significant quantities of transportation and other agencies with an interest in environ- data related to ecosystems, biodiversity, and habitat are col- mental protection and natural resources. Such partnerships lected by dozens of governmental, academic, and private could focus on data sharing via clearinghouses that provide organizations. access to multiple GIS data layers needed for project screen- The major gap in this area is the current fragmentation of ing or more detailed impact analysis. Partnerships also may data sources, making it difficult to locate and integrate infor- extend beyond data sharing and include ongoing collabora- mation when needed. Key opportunities for improvement tion at the planning and programmatic level. (The North include GIS data sharing agreements and web-based GIS data

OCR for page 45
48 access, and interagency collaboration allowing for integrated 1. Development of partnerships between highway agencies planning approaches. One specific approach to collaboration and EPA, state, and local environmental agencies to mon- involves development of a regional ecosystem framework for itor MSAT concentrations in key areas of concern presents assessment of cumulative impacts of multiple infrastructure a cost-effective way to leverage existing data and monitor- and development projects. ing resources; 2. Investment in a meta-analysis of existing site-specific MSAT studies could help to identify best practice mitiga- Wetlands tion measures that may reduce the need for near-road air State DOTs typically track wetlands loss due to transporta- toxics monitoring; and tion project construction, as well as wetlands replacement 3. Provision of support for ongoing efforts outside of the acreage in compensatory mitigation related to projects. DOT community to advance the state of knowledge about While these measures provide a gauge of the quantity of MSAT exposure and health effects. impacts to wetlands, they do not provide an understanding of true ecological consequences at a broader, watershed level. Climate Change This would require better information on the location, types, and quality of wetlands lost and on the long-term suc- Climate change measures are only beginning to be introduced cess of mitigation sites. Availability of this kind of data is as part of state DOT and MPO decision making. There are uneven and fragmented across multiple agencies. Consider- two distinct areas of concern: ation of statewide wetland quality data early in project development would enable DOTs to select project align- 1. Impacts of highway projects on greenhouse gas (GHG) ments that minimize mitigation costs and strengthen envi- emissions; and ronmental stewardship. 2. Potential impacts of climate change effects on future vulner- There are two opportunities for improving data on wetland ability of highway facilities. quality: Rough measures of GHG emissions can be derived from fuel 1. Development of improved remote-sensing-based data col- consumption statistics at a system level, and from estimated lection methods. These methods provide a cost-effective VMT and fuel economy at the project level. Improved accuracy estimation of wetland quality which currently is gathered would require incorporating information on average speeds, through time-intensive field surveys. Several states are drive cycles, and vehicle typeswhich would require more experimenting with these methods. complex assumption and/or use of more advanced modeling 2. Further development of model monitoring programs for and simulation techniques. The shift toward nonpetroleum statewide tracking of the effectiveness of wetland mitigation fuels is increasing the level of uncertainty in emissions estima- sites. Programs in North Carolina and Washington State tion; additional data are needed to improve understanding of provide a useful starting point. the GHG emissions of these fuels. Development of life-cycle models for GHG emissions would improve accuracy and con- fidence levels in estimation of GHG emissions from trans- Environmental Health portation projects. Within the performance measurement framework, environ- Measures of climate change-related risk to transportation mental health focuses on mobile source air toxics (MSAT) facilities require integration of multiple factors: location, that may contribute to human health problems. Informa- condition, and criticality of infrastructure; probability of tion of interest includes ambient concentrations of MSATs, impact; and the degree of severity of multiple climate potential impacts of new highway projects on MSAT emis- change factors, including changes in temperature, precipi- sions, and proximity of vulnerable populations to major tation, sea level rise, storm surge, coastal and inland ero- roadways. The science on air toxics is still evolving and data sion, ice and snow melt, and permafrost condition. Risk are limited. Key gaps are availability of data on ambient con- assessment must be tailored to specific regional and local- centrations in proximity to highway corridors of interest, ized conditions. Though several global circulation models understanding of how future vehicle fuel mix changes will are available to project climate change at national and impact prevalence of different MSATs, and data that provides regional scales, the current state of science involves levels an ability to translate measured or modeled MSAT concen- of uncertainty that preclude specific projections at more trations to health risk factors. localized scales. Another gap is the lack of standardized Three opportunities for improvement in this area were data on locations and elevations of infrastructure, in geo- identified: spatial format. This information is essential for assessment

OCR for page 45
49 of risk for facilities in coastal areas and other sensitive structures; and trends in precipitation levels, temperatures, locations. storm surge heights, relative sea level rise, and location and Development of a geospatially based platform that integrates duration of flooding events. It should enable scenario-based transportation and climate information would facilitate analyses involving differing assumptions about precipitation climate-change-related risk assessment and would be an effec- levels, temperatures, relative sea level rise, severe storm fre- tive way to leverage available data. Such a platform should quency and intensity, storm surge heights, and areas of inun- incorporate data on facility location, emergency evacuation dation. This effort would require interdisciplinary partnerships routes, land and facility elevations, locations of protective between transportation and environmental agencies.