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54 Number of opportunities within a specific distance on a relied on a one-size-fits-all approach (propagated by conser- specific mode; and vative use of industry-wide manuals such as AASHTO's Green Results of visual preference surveys. Book and related state highway design standards). Recognizing this, in 1997, the FHWA published its Flexibility in Highway Measures also may focus on the process used to arrive at Design manual to encourage designers to consider community context sensitive solutions and distribute them about the values and more liberal consideration of the manuals in their community. Examples are: designs. In 2004, AASHTO followed suit by releasing A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design. Both guides empha- Use of multidisciplinary teams; size community input into the design process (Flexibility in Measures of public engagement; and Highway Design, 1997; A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Definition and adherence to vision, goals, and objectives Highway Design, 2004). (TransTech Management, Inc., 2004). Institutional impediments to performance measurement may be overcome. Complexities accompany coordination of activities among multiple actors and stakeholder groups with Key Findings divergent interests. One potential solution is to create a cham- Although measures are defined in the literature, several chal- pion to guide development, implementation, and reporting of lenges to measurement of impacts and distribution of impacts measures. The champion should be someone familiar with the within communities remain. These issues are summarized in principles of social impacts, distribution of impacts, or rela- the remainder of this section. tionships between transportation and land use (TransTech, Comprehensive assessments of community effects of pro- 2004; Cervero et al., 2004). Another solution is to create a posed transportation projects are inherently complex. It is Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among collaborat- difficult to balance benefits to users and effects on other ing agencies and organizations, modeled after the MOU signed community residents, and even among community residents by 23 state agencies in support of the Efficient Transportation numerous competing effects must be traded off. Various seg- Decision-Making system (Edwards et al., 2005). ments of the community may be affected quite differently, and people vary in their preferences and opinions, so outcomes Community Performance desirable to some may be unacceptable to others. Effects such Factors and Objectives as visual quality or community cohesion are difficult to mea- sure objectively. Methods such as stated-preference surveys, Highway capacity projects can have both positive and nega- artist sketches, and GIS-based approaches, however, may be tive impacts on the physical and social characteristics of a local used by practitioners to incorporate qualitative factors into the community. Because the valued characteristics of a commu- transportation planning process (Forkenbrock and Weisbrod, nity are often subjective, the impacts (both positive and neg- 2001; Forkenbrock and Sheeley, 2004; Cambridge Systematics, ative) must be evaluated collaboratively, with input provided Inc., 2002a). from residents, local business owners, and other interested Participation by a wide range of stakeholders is vital for stakeholders. The measurement of community impacts should defensible, responsible, equitable, and successful outcomes be grounded in local and regional land use and transporta- of the transportation planning process. What may not appear tion plans that establish a clear vision for a community. critical to a transportation analyst may be crucial to a neigh- Although there are several potential ways to classify commu- borhood or population subgroup. Some agencies have noted nity impacts, the following four categories are used to differ- that increased public outreach efforts have identified issues not entiate among the key concepts in this part of the framework: previously identified as concerns to local communities. Simi- larly, inclusiveness in land use and transportation planning, Land Use; design, and implementation is essential to successful projects. Archeological, Historical, and Cultural Resources; Outreach diminishes the likelihood of a NIMBY backlash and Social; and gives residents of an affected area a vested stake in ensuring Environmental Justice. that what is built is consistent with neighborhood goals (Forkenbrock and Weisbrod, 2001; Forkenbrock and Sheeley, Land Use 2004; Cervero et al., 2004; Cambridge Systematics, Inc., 2002a). Flexible design, public participation, and high-quality Land use impacts include changes in land cover and vegeta- implementation help achieve goals of individual communi- tion, changes in the use of land from natural to human uses, ties. Communities have individual requirements for trans- and changes in the type of use (e.g., residential, commercial, portation infrastructure design, but designers have historically industrial, agricultural). The change in land use can be reflected

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55 in the environmental quality of the land, the type of human consumption with the relevant land use plans in their Vision use, and the intensity of use. Highway capacity projects can 2040 plan. impact land use through direct physical impacts on the land, or indirect impacts resulting from new levels of mobility and Archeological, Historical, accessibility. Two broad objectives in the land use factor area and Cultural Resources are supported by the five framework measures in Table 7.1: Communities often have an interest in preserving their past Land preservation; and to maintain a sense of history, offer educational opportunities, Integration of land use and transportation planning efforts. and support research. Highway capacity projects can threaten The case study highlight illustrates how the Puget Sound preservation efforts directly, by impacting historic, cultural, Regional Council measures the consistency of induced land and archeological sites, or indirectly, by changing the usage SHRP 2 Framework Measure Specific Measure Applications Transportation Land Consumption Amount of land Land needed for new facility and right-of-way by type (e.g., agricultural, forest, converted to transportation uses. wetland, urbanized land); Acres of farmland directly impacted; Encroachment on developed lands number of residential, commercial, public, and mixed use property impacts; and Acres of right-of-way acquisitions. Induced Development Land Consumption Amount Amount of land projected to be consumed due to economic growth related to of land developed for nontransportation uses as a project (based on model). result of the project. Consistency of Induced Land Consumption with Projected growth (based on models) due to project are in line with local and Land Use Plan Extent to which anticipated regional vision and plans; induced growth impacts are consistent with local Development guidelines and requirements (zoning codes, development incen- and regional plans for growth. tives, etc.) are consistent with local and regional plans; Miles of residential streets with significant `traffic conflicts' (frequent access points, etc.) measured using a level of service scale (A to F); and Miles of arterial streets with significant `land use conflicts' (frequent driveway spacing, etc.) measured using a level of service scale (A to F). Support of Project for Growth Centers Project serves Project is located within the boundaries of a designated growth center; designated growth centers or growth policy areas. Project directly serves a designated growth center; and Local jurisdictions are permitting housing units in a manner consistent with the regional growth strategy distribution of issued housing permits, by regional geography, by county. Local-Regional Plan Consistency Consistency of Project is consistent with local and regional land use policies; and local land use policies with regional transportation- Land use transportation compatibility index: defined as daily traffic divided by land use vision. average residential or commercial driveway spacing. Case Study Highlight: Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Vision 2040 Description: PSRC's long-range transportation plan, Destination 2030, and regional transportation/land use plan, Vision 2040, were developed using an extensive array of performance measures addressing mobility, safety, land use, the environment, and other issues. The agency has implemented performance monitoring systems to continue to track transportation and land use trends in the region. Projects included in the region's TIP must be included in, or consistent with, Destination 2030. Sample Measure: Outcome Local jurisdictions are permitting housing units in a manner consistent with the Regional Growth Strategy; Measure Distribution of issued housing permits by regional geography and by county, in order to assess jobs-housing balance and other issues; and Data Source PSRC Housing Permit Database. Table 7.1. Community Measures Land Use Factor