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65 public and stakeholder involvement may be required to 4. Cultivation of stronger interagency partnerships to facili- advance a particularly challenging project. tate data sharing and collaborative approaches to data analysis; and 5. Support for data and metadata standards and data clearing- Linking Performance Measures houses to enable integration of data from disparate sources. Across Phases In addition to linking to key decision points, performance Each of these is discussed in turn below. measures should show some consistency across the phases of the project development process. Although measures used in Remote Sensing Applications long-range planning may not be the exact measures used in corridor analysis or programming, it is vital that decisions Remote sensing technology currently is being used to provide made using performance measures at one phase not be incon- a variety of data sets that would be prohibitively expensive to sistent with measures used at a later stage. collect via field survey methods. Availability of remote sens- Performance measures should be refined across scales ing imagery provides valuable baseline information for long- from statewide or regional in nature (at the long-range plan range planning and screening of alternatives. Additional work level) to corridor or alignment in nature. The key is to define is needed on specific applications of remote sensing for wetland measures broadly in the early stages and more specifically in quality, land use classification, and detailed physical features of the later stages. For example, measures of capacity projects at land cover. Needs include: long-range planning stages should be prioritizing among competing corridors for funding by indicating general levels Data collection (air and satellite photography); of congestion or identifying red flag issues in corridors that Image processing software; may be stumbling blocks for future project development. Education and training within the DOT community; The performance measures framework is designed to help Development of specific methods for imagery analysis and address consistency by identifying high-level measure concepts translation; and that can be useful at one or several phases. Table 9.2 presents Development of effective information presentation formats several examples of specific measure definitions that could be geared to project developers and resource agency partners. applied during the phases of project development. These are intended to be examples only, not a comprehensive list. In the short, two activities are needed: In addition, some performance measures are only relevant during certain phases. For example, the travel-time reliability 1. Additional targeted research to investigate the potential of index requires examination of specific corridors and only has remote sensing to produce meaningful data for significant significant use during corridor studies. Similarly, given the natural resources such as wetlands; and often yearly frequency of updates to agencies' Transportation 2. Guidance materials for state DOTs and other transporta- Improvement Programs (TIP), many measures do not apply at tion agencies to understand how they might use data from this phase. The best case measures for programming are those remote sensing for specific applications (e.g., wetlands qual- that evaluate the overall consistency between the proposed ity monitoring). The effort to produce guidance material program and other major domains, such as land use, water might appropriately fall within the purview of the Trans- quality, habitat, etc. These measures are qualitative in nature. portation Research Board, through either the SHRP 2 pro- gram or the National Cooperative Highway Research Summary of High-Value Program (NCHRP). Opportunities for Data Improvement GIS Applications for Program and Project Analysis Though each factor examined in the previous section has unique data gaps and opportunities, five common themes GIS-based tools that incorporate multiple data layers and emerged: facilitate specific analysis tasks provide tremendous value to planners and project engineers, eliminating the need to iden- 1. Use of remote sensing for data capture; tify and track down data sources and develop custom queries 2. Further development of tailored GIS applications that and analysis capabilities. Specific applications where these facilitate use of multiple data layers for specific program types of tools would add value include: and project-level analysis tasks; 3. Further development of modeling and simulation tools Integrated screening analysis based on transportation, that support scenario analysis; environmental, land use, and cultural resource data;

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66 Factor Measure Long-Range Planning Programming Corridor Study Environmental Review Mobility Level of service Percent of state highway Change in project percent of Percent of corridor highway Projected improvement in miles with level of service state highway miles with miles with level of service level of service of E or F, current and level of service E or F E or F impacted segments and projected surrounding highways Ecosystem, Habitat Loss of habitats Number, size and signifi- Number or percent of projects Size and fragmentation of Expected change in habitat and Biodiversity cance (i.e., endangered in the TIP that may impact habitats impacted by the size and fragmentation status) of habitats adja- habitats of significance corridor cent to or overlapping state highways (qualitative measure) Water Quality Water quality Number of water bodies on Number or percent of projects Distance from highway right- Distance from highway right- protection areas the Clean Water Act in the TIP that are adja- of-way within the corridor of-way within the corridor Section 303d impaired cent to water bodies on to water bodies on the to water bodies on the water bodies list adjacent the Clean Water Act Clean Water Act Section Clean Water Act Section to transportation Section 303d impaired 303d impaired water 303d impaired water infrastructure water bodies list bodies list, by segment bodies list, by segment Climate Change Infrastructure Percent of or total lane-miles Number or percent of projects Expected life of investments Planned elevation of new vulnerability of state highway that are in the TIP that would be in the corridor given the infrastructure investment subject to inundation from constructed in areas potential for inundation relative to expected level a severe weather event with significant risk of relative to normal of inundation from a inundation over the life of expected life cycle severe weather event the project Land Use Local-regional plan Percent of municipalities with Number or percent of projects Population weighted percent N/A consistency adopted land use plans within the TIP that are of municipalities in a cor- that conform to a regional within municipalities that ridor with adopted land transportation-land use do not have a local land use plans that conform to vision use plan that conforms to a regional transportation- a regional transportation- land use vision land use vision Social Community N/A N/A Percent of municipalities in Percent of walking trips cohesion the corridor that are crossing arterials with divided by highway a peak period of over facilities 1,000 vehicles per hour Table 9.2. Examples of Performance Measure Refinement Across Scales

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67 Provision of a regional overlay of individual agency plans the framework. Additional guidance that identifies model to support cross-agency collaboration on identification of processes to actually implement the Collaborative Decision- needs and assessment of cumulative resource impacts; and Making Framework may make a useful desk reference for Analysis of transportation facility vulnerability related to agencies. Though it would likely be difficult to provide com- climate change. prehensive guidance for all of the relevant processes that agencies currently use, it is possible to develop guidance Existing examples of these tools (e.g., Florida's Environ- around a common set of processes that apply to many trans- mental Screening Tool) can serve as models for development portation agencies. of nationally available capabilities. Data Sharing Modeling and Simulation Tools A prerequisite to data integration and sharing across dis- Development of simulation or scenario analysis tools that parate data producers and users is availability of metadata build on the GIS capabilities described above would provide that documents dataset content, derivation, accuracy, and further value for early exploration of capacity project alterna- suitability for specific purposes. Use of the federal metadata tives. Specific applications of value include: standards developed by the Federal Geographic Data Com- mittee (FGDC) has become fairly widespread for geospatial Impact assessment for proposed facilities or programs of datasets. (Federal Geographic Data Committee) The FGDC projects on water quality, habitat, and historic and cultural also endorses a variety of other standards for specific data resources; and types (e.g., wetlands, vegetation, soils.) Programmatic guide- Analysis of the implications of various climate change sce- lines and tools that encourage and facilitate provision of com- narios on infrastructure vulnerability. plete and consistent metadata would be of value. Standardization of land use classifications would facilitate In the short term, there is an existing Environmental sharing of land use data across jurisdictions. Use of the Amer- Information Management System (EIMS) developed as part ican Planning Association's Land-Based Classification Stan- of NCHRP 25-23 project that presents an opportunity to dards (LBCS) is a promising approach. These classifications build a decision support tool. This system provides a plat- could be adopted for use within nationally developed toolsets form on which environmental management tools could be that include land use data. developed in a consistent manner for use by multiple agen- Use of existing data clearinghouses for sharing data sets cies. The EIMS is being considered as part of AASHTO's across agencies represents a low-cost, high-value practice. Cooperative Software Development Program, but has yet to Major clearinghouses at the national level are be adopted. and the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII). Both sites provide access to a wealth of information resources, and include provision for state and local agencies to share Interagency Partnerships their data. They are supported by well-defined stewardship Environmental and natural resource agencies at the federal, arrangements and processes for data submittal and updating. state, and regional levels offer a wealth of data that are needed The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) is to support performance assessments for many of the factors another potentially useful resource for support of informa- in the SHRP C02 framework. Transportation agencies already tion sharing initiatives across governments. NIEM is a joint are tapping into many of these data sources. Partnerships can initiative of the U.S. Departments of Justice and Homeland be pursued at all levels of government to further strengthen Security. NIEM's function is to "develop, disseminate, and data sharing initiatives, leverage existing monitoring resources, support enterprise-wide information exchange standards and jointly pursue development of new data sets and tools and processes that can enable jurisdictions to effectively share that meet common needs. Specific examples of successful critical information in emergency situations, as well as sup- partnerships include GIS data sharing agreements in Oregon port the day-to-day operations of agencies throughout the and New York State, and the North Carolina Ecosystem nation." NIEM provides a framework within which commu- Enhancement Program. nities of interest can identify information sharing require- SHRP 2 Project C01 addresses the question of partnerships ments, develop common standards, and implement the among multiple agencies to advance the needs of both trans- standards through technical tools and training. NIEM cur- portation planning and resource protection. However, that rently focuses on criminal justice, public safety, and emer- project focuses on providing a framework for collaborative gency response data exchange. However, it incorporates several decision making and not a process to actually implement foundational elements of value to any data sharing effort

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68 including standards for measurement units, and location Adoption of standard land use classifications across juris- identification. dictions; In the short term, a more detailed evaluation of existing Each jurisdiction providing standard metadata and using data standards and available data clearinghouses would pro- the clearinghouse to post their data; and vide useful information to form the basis of potential data The DOT accessing these data sets and combining them for standards. Following that, it may be useful to pursue a small use in an analysis. number of pilot applications or mockups of how a data standard-setting process and clearinghouse would operate. The pilot applications could help to define these steps and For example, a land use data clearinghouse might have the provide the tools to develop the clearing houses within indi- following steps: vidual states or nationally.