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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking 4.3 Blocking a More Complex Schedule In many transit systems, routes are not designed to operate with the same head- LEVEL way and running times throughout the day. Most urban routes are designed with 2B complexities that include multiple terminals for route branches, variable running times, headway variations, added trips related to school bell times, mid-route layover at a timed transfer location, and route interlining. Route -Pasco Avenue will be blocked in this section. The skills involved in blocking a more complex route are the same as the basic skills that have already been discussed for a simple route. Trips are hooked or linked together into vehicle as- signments based on the requirements for layover time and the goal of minimizing hours and vehicles. This is a good point to summarize some basic rules for blocking a complex route. It is not necessary to provide equal layover time at both ends of the route. The tar- get layover time is usually based on the round-trip running time. Generally it is a good idea to provide some layover time at each end of the route, since delays can occur in either direction. It is not necessary, however, especially in cases where there is mid- route layover time at a timed transfer location. In the previous Route example, we provided layover time at both ends of the route, but during the midday the layover was three minutes at one end and minutes at the other. So, a corollary to this rule is that layover time does not have to be evenly distributed at both ends of the route. Some blocks are likely to operate only during peak periods, while other blocks will operate throughout the day. The Route example above featured three all-day blocks, two AM blocks, and two PM blocks. When initially linking trips into blocks, trips are hooked until there is either too little layover time to comply with labor contract re- quirements or too much layover time compared to another hooking possibility. Some peak blocks may make only a single trip to augment peak-of-the-peak service or to add service during school peaks. Although such blocks may serve an important need, single-trip blocks are costly, especially when they require a dedicated peak vehicle. Interlining with another block is almost always desirable. Tracking trip assignments to blocks on the master schedule, as we did with Route , reduces the chance of error. One of the more common mistakes involves the scheduler inadvertently missing single trips in the blocking thread. If not caught in time, this requires extensive reworking. Computerized scheduling software packages track trips and blocks automatically. 4-30

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Route variations are generally interlined only at common terminals. For example, departing Route trips in this section's example from the common terminal at Rugby Circle may serve either branch. Trips that arrive at either of the "outer" or south termi- nals (Sand Point or Libby & Wishram) would leave from that terminal in revenue service, rather than deadheading from one terminal to the other. All trips do not have to start and end at one end of the route. Pull-out trips may start at a midpoint of the route close to the garage, and pull-in trips may end at a midpoint of the route. For a route with multiple terminals, it is advisable to make space for more than one terminal on the blocking sheet. It is very easy to introduce errors by cross blocking trips from one outer terminal to the other, especially when arrival or leave times at both terminals are similar. A recommended format designed to guard against this kind of mistake is shown later in this example. The easiest way to block interlined trips is to set up a sheet showing arrive and leave times of all routes at a particular terminal. From that sheet, trips are matched and the blocking process progresses to other terminals and other blocking opportuni- match-up sheet ties using another match-up sheet. An example of a "match-up" sheet is shown later in A listing of all arrival and leave this section. times of all routes at a particular terminal. This sheet simplifies the The following pages include the Route map, the master schedule (headway sheet) for Route process of interlining trips. , and a sample blocking sheet form that displays multiple terminals. The first step is to de- velop an initial set of blocks from the master schedule and record these on the blocking sheet form. 4-31

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking Route 96A- Pasco Ave. y dwa oa Br Pa sc Time point o Ru gb y Ci n to rc is le i ll W Pa sc o e vr Ha Garage x se Es Sh Sa elb nd y Pasco Po t no in Mi t 96A Li bb y am hr is 96 W 4-32

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T R o u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y P art 1 N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 0 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 0 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 0 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 0 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 0 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 0 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 0 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 0 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 0 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 0 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 0 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 0 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 0 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 0 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 0 8:46 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 0 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 0 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 0 9:17 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 0 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 0 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 0 9:46 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 0 9:57 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 0 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 0 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 0 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 0 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 0 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 0 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 0 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 0 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 0 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 0 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 0 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 0 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 0 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 0 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 0 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 0 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 0 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 0 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:13 14:23 0 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:29 14:35 0 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:43 14:53 0 4-33

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T R o u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y P art 1 N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 14:59 15:05 0 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:13 15:23 0 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:29 15:35 0 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:48 0 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 0 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 0 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 0 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 0 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 0 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 0 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 0 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 0 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:01 17:09 17:20 17:32 17:36 0 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:11 17:19 17:30 17:41 17:53 0 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:52 18:05 0 16:32 16:45 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:31 17:39 17:50 18:01 0 18:21 16:45 16:55 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:40 17:48 17:58 18:10 18:35 0 16:52 17:05 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:50 17:58 18:08 18:19 18:23 0 17:05 17:15 17:26 17:34 17:45 17:52 18:02 18:10 18:20 18:32 0 18:52 17:15 17:28 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:15 18:23 18:33 18:44 18:53 0 17:28 17:38 17:49 17:57 18:08 0 18:18 17:36 17:49 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:30 18:38 18:48 19:00 19:05 0 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:45 18:53 19:03 19:14 19:23 0 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:15 19:26 19:35 0 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:30 19:40 19:53 0 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:50 20:01 20:06 0 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:10 20:20 20:28 0 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 0 19:54 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:30 20:41 20:46 0 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:50 21:00 21:08 0 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 0 20:36 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:10 21:21 21:26 0 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 0 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 0 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 0 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 0 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 0 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 0 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 0 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 0 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 0 23:49 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 0 0:56 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 0 0:29 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 0 0:49 4-34

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE Special Instructions: DAY DATE Eastbound Westbound Depart Depart Arrive Arrive Depart Depart Arrive Arrive Western Western Eastern Eastern Eastern Eastern Western Western Block # Pull Out Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Pull In 1 2 1 2 D D A A 4-35

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking In blocking Route , we will use the convention of numbering the blocks in the order of pull-out from the garage. The headway sheet shows the first pull-out at : AM for a : northbound trip from Libby/Wishram. Number this as block and assign this block to all subsequent hooked trips. The headway sheet below shows the first few trips. Your filled- in headway sheet will show that the block will operate all day, with a final trip northbound at : , returning to the garage at : . HE A D W A Y S HE E T R o u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 0 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 0 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 0 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 0 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 0 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 0 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 0 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 0 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 0 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 0 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 0 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 0 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 0 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 9601 The sample blocking sheet has been customized for Route , and the entries are shown below, including all the trips assigned to this block. If you use formulas (as recommended) in constructing the blocking sheet, you have already found that this sheet is different from the blocking sheet in the Route examples--the formulas change! This is because running time and layover time change throughout the day. You can also see that most but not all trips serve the Libby/Wishram terminal instead of the Sand Point terminal. Other blocks could have a more even distribution of trips between the 4-36

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking paddle two terminals, or may have a pattern similar to . The paddle usually includes a reminder The drivers schedule for the day regarding the appropriate headsign to use for each trip. including all scheduled time points Finally, you will note that there are some long layovers in the schedule, particularly at times and notes or reminders to the when headways are in transition. The trip arriving at Libby/Wishram at : has a -minute operator. layover, while the trip arriving at : has a -minute layover. In cases where meal breaks are required, long layovers are often scheduled to accommodate these breaks. After we are done with blocking, we should review the blocks to see if there are better hooks. In terms of minimum layover, the : northbound trip has four minutes at one end and six minutes at the other end, meeting the minimum required layover of nine minutes per round trip. Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 15-Sep-07 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 14:59 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:35 16:45 16:45 17:25 17:30 18:10 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:01 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:21 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 4-37

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking Next, add the second block. The next pull-out is at : to Rugby Circle, so this will become Block . Block also provides all-day service, with a final trip northbound at : , pull- ing in at : . The third block ( ) pulls out at : and is also an all-day block. Block pulls out at : . After adding these blocks, the headway sheet (showing early trips only) and blocking sheet appear as follows: HE A D W A Y S HE E T R o u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9602 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 9602 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 0 9603 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 9603 9604 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 9604 9602 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9602 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 0 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 0 9603 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 9603 9604 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 9604 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 0 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 0 9602 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9602 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 0 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 9601 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 0 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 0 9:17 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 0 9603 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 9603 9604 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9604 9:46 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 0 9:57 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 0 9602 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 9602 4-38

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 15-Sep-07 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 14:59 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:35 16:45 16:45 17:25 17:30 18:10 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:01 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:21 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 9602 4:10 4:20 4:53 5:05 5:05 5:46 5:50 6:27 6:45 6:45 7:30 7:35 8:17 8:35 8:35 9:16 9:22 9:59 10:05 10:05 10:44 10:52 11:29 11:35 11:35 12:14 12:22 12:59 13:05 13:05 13:44 13:50 14:29 14:35 14:35 15:16 15:20 15:59 16:05 16:05 16:46 16:50 17:32 17:36 17:36 18:15 18:20 19:00 19:05 19:05 19:44 19:54 9603 4:15 4:35 5:11 5:20 5:57 6:05 6:05 6:46 6:50 7:32 7:45 7:45 8:30 8:35 9:17 9:35 9:35 10:14 10:22 10:59 11:05 11:05 11:44 11:52 12:29 12:35 12:35 13:14 13:22 13:59 14:05 14:05 14:46 14:50 15:29 15:35 15:35 16:16 16:20 17:01 17:05 17:05 17:45 17:52 18:32 18:52 9604 4:39 4:59 5:31 5:35 6:12 6:19 6:19 6:56 7:05 7:46 7:57 7:57 8:40 8:45 9:26 9:46 4-39

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking As the blocking process continues, you may notice the following: Blocks pull out to multiple locations. This was true even in our simple example in the basic blocking section. With two branches, the first four blocks pull out to three differ- ent locations to begin revenue service. As the process continues into the afternoon, some PM blocks will pull out to a mid-route location. Some blocks operate all day, while others operate in only one peak period. In the peak periods, layover time can approach or even drop below the minimum % level. The : round-trip on block and the : round trip on block have only eight minutes of layover time (four at each terminal). With a round-trip running time of minutes, the layover time rounds up to % and so may be acceptable. As noted previously, several agencies have work rules that allow slight "cheating" on lay- over times during peak periods. Note that in both cases, layover times before and after the round-trips in question are at least five minutes. The final blocking sheet and headway sheet for Route are shown below. All blocks are filled in on the blocking sheet, and each trip on the headway sheet is assigned to a block. 4-40

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T R o u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9602 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 9602 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 9605 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 9605 9603 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 9603 9604 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 9604 9602 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9602 9606 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 9606 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 9605 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 9605 9603 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 9603 9604 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 9604 9607 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 9607 9608 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 9608 9602 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9602 9606 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 9606 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9601 8:57 9605 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 9605 9609 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 9:05 9609 9610 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 9610 9603 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 9603 9604 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9604 9:46 9607 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 9607 9:57 9608 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 9608 9602 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 9602 9605 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 9605 9609 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 9609 9610 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 9610 9603 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 9603 9608 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 9608 9602 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 9602 9605 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 9605 9609 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 9609 9610 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 9610 9603 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 9603 9608 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 9608 9602 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 9602 9605 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 9605 9609 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 9609 9610 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 9610 9603 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 9603 9608 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:13 14:23 9608 9602 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:29 14:35 9602 9605 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:43 14:53 9605 4-57

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T R o u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9609 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 14:59 15:05 9609 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:13 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:29 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 9603 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 9608 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:01 17:09 17:20 17:32 17:36 9602 9611 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:11 17:19 17:30 17:41 17:53 9611 9613 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:52 18:05 9613 9605 16:32 16:45 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:31 17:39 17:50 18:01 9605 18:21 9609 16:45 16:55 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:40 17:48 17:58 18:10 18:35 9609 9610 16:52 17:05 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:50 17:58 18:08 18:19 18:23 9610 9603 17:05 17:15 17:26 17:34 17:45 17:52 18:02 18:10 18:20 18:32 9603 18:52 9612 17:15 17:28 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:15 18:23 18:33 18:44 18:53 9612 9608 17:28 17:38 17:49 17:57 18:08 9608 18:18 9602 17:36 17:49 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:30 18:38 18:48 19:00 19:05 9602 9611 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:45 18:53 19:03 19:14 19:23 9611 9613 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:15 19:26 19:35 9613 9610 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:30 19:40 19:53 9610 9609 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:50 20:01 20:06 9609 9612 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:10 20:20 20:28 9612 9602 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 9602 19:54 9611 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:30 20:41 20:46 9611 9613 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:50 21:00 21:08 9613 9610 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9610 20:36 9609 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:10 21:21 21:26 9609 9612 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9612 9611 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9611 9613 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9613 9609 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9609 9612 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9612 9611 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9611 9613 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9613 9609 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9609 9612 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 9612 23:49 9611 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9611 0:56 9613 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 9613 0:29 9609 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9609 0:49 4-58

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Hours Summary B loc k G arage D epart G arage A rrive P latform H ours 9601 3:45 8:57 5:12 9602 4:10 19:54 15:44 9603 4:15 18:52 14:37 9604 4:39 9:46 5:07 9605 4:55 18:21 13:26 9606 4:59 8:46 3:47 9607 6:05 9:57 3:52 9608 6:17 18:18 12:01 9609 7:05 0:49 17:44 9610 7:17 20:36 13:19 9611 15:23 0:56 9:33 9612 15:43 23:49 8:06 9613 16:20 0:29 8:09 Total 130:37 Mileage Summary 96 N B Trips P ull Trips P ull Trips P ull Trips P ull Trips B loc k 96 N B Trips 96A N B Trips from E s s ex 96 S B Trips 96A S B Trips Libby /W is hram S and P oint P as c o E s s ex R ugby C irc le M ileage 9601 3 3 2 57.3 9602 10 10 2 160.0 9603 8 1 8 1 2 149.2 9604 3 3 2 54.0 9605 1 7 1 8 1 1 131.7 9606 2 2 2 39.6 9607 2 2 2 41.8 9608 8 7 1 1 116.2 9609 11 1 10 1 1 1 184.8 9610 1 8 1 7 1 1 131.7 9611 3 3 4 3 1 1 105.7 9612 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 84.4 9613 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 85.4 Total 42 40 2 42 39 8 7 2 9 1341.7 4-59

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking Deadheading vs. Running in Service The Route example has introduced complexities typical of those facing schedulers, includ- ing multiple terminals, running times that change throughout the day, and considerations re- garding other elements of the scheduling process, especially runcutting. An interesting aspect that deserves additional discussion is pull-out and pull-in locations. The revised blocks resulted in two pull-outs (at : and : ) to Pasco & Essex, which is not a terminal but rather a loca- tion along the route. Are there benefits in doing so? And why did we do this instead of starting these trips at one of the terminals? The simplest answer is that these pull-outs occur early in the PM peak, when more frequent service is needed along the core of the route but not yet along the branches. The mid-route pull-out puts service in the place where it is needed, when it is needed. By focusing service where it is needed and by avoiding over-serving the branches, the mid-route pull-out minimiz- es platform hours. The pull-out could have gone into service at Rugby Circle at the northern end of the route, as the : pull-out did, but then the northbound headways could not have been reduced to minutes at : . Use of mid-route pull-outs allows the scheduler to pro- vide required service while minimizing the cost to do so. The "complexity" introduced by this is typically the definition of an additional deadhead path between the garage and the route. More broadly, are there advantages to deadheading versus running in service? Depending on the route and garage location, there is not always a choice, but are there times when one is preferable to the other? Advantages of deadheading include: Simplicity. The bus travels directly to the location where service is needed. Invariably, this is the least expensive option. Consistency. At the end of revenue service, deadheading from terminals back to the garage for pull-ins ensures that the revenue trip is completed to the terminal. Pulling in from mid-route locations may force a same-route transfer. Advantages of running in service instead of deadheading include: Maximizing service available to riders. If a pull-out or pull-in can operate in revenue service partway to or from the garage, this provides added service for riders. Put an- other way, this increases the ratio of revenue hours to platform hours. Flexibility. As seen in the Route example, running in service can allow the scheduler to provide the required service while minimizing costs. Funding considerations. Some agencies routinely maximize revenue miles or revenue hours because one (or both) of these measures is a component in a funding formula. 4-60

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Interlining Earlier in this chapter, we mentioned that the easiest way to block interlined routes is to set up a sheet showing arrive and leave times of all routes at a particular terminal. The Route example was only a single route, so you did not have a chance to consider interlining opportu- nities. Interlining opportunities are greatest at terminals served by a number of routes. In this ex- ample, Rugby Circle is a transit center served by Routes , , and in addition to Route . Route operates every half-hour during peak periods and every hour during the midday, with a round-trip running time of minutes. Routes and operate every hour, with a round- trip running time of roughly minutes. Both routes have school trips. No trips are currently interlined. The example of a "match-up" sheet is shown below. This is the PM peak portion of the sheet, showing every arrival and departure scheduled at Rugby Circle between and PM. 4-61

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking M A T C H -U P S H E E T L o ca tio n : R ugby C irc le IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y A R R IV A L S D EP A R T U R ES R o u te B lo ck A rr T im e R o u te B lo ck D e p T im e 20 2002 14:24 20 2002 15:05 10 1001 14:54 10 1001 15:35 1 101 15:00 1 101 15:05 96 608 15:01 96 9608 15:05 20S 2004 15:10 96 9602 15:16 96 9605 15:20 10S 1004 15:20 96 9611 15:33 1 104 15:35 20 2001 15:24 20 2001 16:05 96 9605 15:31 96 9605 15:45 96 9609 15:46 96 9609 15:57 10 1002 15:56 10 1002 16:35 1 101 16:00 1 101 16:05 96 9610 16:01 96 9610 16:09 96 9603 16:16 96 9603 16:20 96 9612 16:26 96 9612 16:30 20 2002 16:26 20 2002 17:05 1 104 16:30 1 104 16:35 96 9608 16:36 96 9608 16:40 96 9602 16:46 96 9602 16:50 96 9611 16:55 96 9611 17:00 10 1001 16:56 10 1001 17:35 1 101 17:00 1 101 17:05 96 9613 17:05 96 9613 17:10 96 9605 17:15 96 9605 17:20 96 9609 17:25 96 9609 17:30 20 2001 17:26 20 2001 18:05 1 104 17:30 1 104 17:35 96 9610 17:35 96 9610 17:40 96 9603 17:45 96 9603 17:52 10 1002 17:56 10 1002 18:35 96 9612 17:58 96 9612 18:05 1 101 18:00 1 101 18:05 4-62

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking The match-up sheet is designed to list arrivals in order and to keep blocks on the same line of text. Any departure without an arrival is a pull-out, and any arrival without a departure is a pull-in. On the sheet, the school trips ( S and S) pull in after making the school trip, and Route and Route each has a pull-out beginning service at Rugby Circle. From a scheduler's perspective, the chief advantage of interlining is the ability to minimize the resources needed to operate a given schedule. Both school trips are using a bus to make a single trip, while two other buses are pulling out to this location to provide more frequent peak-period service. If you can interline a school trip with a trip on another block, you will save a bus. Looking at the blocking diagram, you can interline both school trips with other trips. Interline the S trip arriving at : with the Route trip leaving at : . The S trip will now be part of block . Interline the S trip arriving at : with the Route trip leaving at : . The S trip will now be part of block . This interlining saves two PM pullouts: blocks and are no longer needed. Interlining is a great tool Another use for the match-up sheet is to spot long layovers and explore interlining possibilities Tip to minimize layover. Can you identify any long layovers on the match-up sheet? for reducing costs and vehicle requirements, but should be used sparingly--avoiding complexity The first two lines of the match-up sheet show that Route and Route both have -min- unless it adds value. ute layovers (you might have guessed this already, given the -minute round-trip running time and the -minute headway on both routes). This may be an opportunity to interline all trips on the two routes (known as through-routing, as noted earlier). Route arrives at ap- . proximately : and leaves at : every hour, while Route arrives at approximately : and leaves at : every hour. Would through-routing work on these two routes? Even when running time is greatest (Route arrivals at : and : and Route arrivals at : and : ), layover time would be nine minutes, or % of the -minute running time. The changes to the school trips and Routes and are highlighted on the revised match-up sheet. The school trips have been assigned to their new blocks, and blocks and are no longer on the schedule. There are three blocks ( , , and ) on the through-rout- ed Routes and . Block has been added, but blocks and are no longer on the schedule. Thus, the through-routing has saved a bus on the combined Routes and . Notice that no arrival or departure times have changed on any trip. Without affecting the schedule at all, you have saved two PM pull-outs and one all-day pull-out. This is an example of the powerful impact of interlining. 4-63

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking Interlining may not be able to produce savings in a small transit system where, for example, all routes leave the downtown terminal at the same time every minutes. In this situation, however, interlining can play a role by evening out the work load. If one route is tight for time on several trips while another route has plenty of time in its schedule, interlining the two routes (all day or in peak periods only) can help to ensure that no operator faces a situation of consis- tently minimal layovers. MA T C H-UP S HE E T - R E V IS E D L o c a ti o n : R ugb y C irc le IN EFF : S ep t e m be r 15 , 200 7 M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y ARR IV A L S D EP AR T UR ES R o u te B lo ck A rr T i m e R o u te B lo ck D e p T im e 20 100 2 14 : 2 4 10 100 2 14 : 3 5 10 100 1 14 : 5 4 20 100 1 15 : 0 5 1 10 1 15 : 0 0 1 10 1 15 : 0 5 96 60 8 15 : 0 1 96 960 8 15 : 0 5 20 S 961 1 15 : 1 0 96 961 1 15 : 3 3 96 960 2 15 : 1 6 96 960 5 15 : 2 0 10 S 10 4 15 : 2 0 1 10 4 15 : 3 5 20 100 3 15 : 2 4 10 100 3 15 : 3 5 96 960 5 15 : 3 1 96 960 5 15 : 4 5 96 960 9 15 : 4 6 96 960 9 15 : 5 7 10 100 2 15 : 5 6 20 100 2 16 : 0 5 1 10 1 16 : 0 0 1 10 1 16 : 0 5 96 961 0 16 : 0 1 96 961 0 16 : 0 9 96 960 3 16 : 1 6 96 960 3 16 : 2 0 96 961 2 16 : 2 6 96 961 2 16 : 3 0 20 100 1 16 : 2 6 10 100 1 16 : 3 5 1 10 4 16 : 3 0 1 10 4 16 : 3 5 96 960 8 16 : 3 6 96 960 8 16 : 4 0 96 960 2 16 : 4 6 96 960 2 16 : 5 0 96 961 1 16 : 5 5 96 961 1 17 : 0 0 10 100 3 16 : 5 6 20 100 3 17 : 0 5 1 10 1 17 : 0 0 1 10 1 17 : 0 5 96 961 3 17 : 0 5 96 961 3 17 : 1 0 96 960 5 17 : 1 5 96 960 5 17 : 2 0 96 960 9 17 : 2 5 96 960 9 17 : 3 0 20 100 2 17 : 2 6 10 100 2 17 : 3 5 1 10 4 17 : 3 0 1 10 4 17 : 3 5 96 961 0 17 : 3 5 96 961 0 17 : 4 0 96 960 3 17 : 4 5 96 960 3 17 : 5 2 10 100 1 17 : 5 5 20 100 1 18 : 0 5 96 961 2 17 : 5 8 96 961 2 18 : 0 5 1 10 1 18 : 0 0 1 10 1 18 : 0 5 4-64

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Assume in this example that Route experiences delays during the peak period due to con- struction along the route, while Routes and frequently arrive at Rugby Circle a few min- utes early. One solution would be to interline Route trips with either Route or Route trips during the peak period. No operator would consistently experience less layover time than scheduled--it would happen at the end of a Route trip, but more layover time than scheduled would be available at the end of the Route or Route trip. Change the match-up sheet so that Route trips are interlined with Routes and . The "Revised " match-up sheet shows the interlined blocks. This example becomes somewhat trickier to follow throughout the PM peak. Interlining op- tions are not always apparent to the naked eye of a novice scheduler. Computerized schedul- ing software packages will sometimes identify interlining opportunities that even an experi- enced scheduler might miss. As noted earlier, the extent of interlining is a matter of agency policy. Some transit agencies prefer that their operators drive as many different routes as possible, to familiarize themselves with a larger portion of the route network. Others like to keep operators on a given route, so that operators become more knowledgeable of the surrounding neighborhoods. The examples in this section have shown the blocking process at the route level and at a trans- fer center where several routes meet, creating interlining options. Blocking can also be done at the garage level. A garage-level exercise would take up pages in this manual; suffice to say that computerized scheduling packages simplify this process considerably. 4-65

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Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Level . Intermediate Blocking MA T C H-UP S HE E T - R E V IS E D 2 L o c a ti o n : R ugb y C irc le IN EFF : S ep t e m be r 15 , 200 7 M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y ARR IV A L S D EP AR T UR ES R o u te B lo ck A rr T i m e R o u te B lo ck D e p T im e 20 100 2 14 : 2 4 10 100 2 14 : 3 5 10 100 1 14 : 5 4 1 100 1 15 : 0 5 1 10 1 15 : 0 0 20 10 1 15 : 0 5 96 60 8 15 : 0 1 96 960 8 15 : 0 5 20 S 961 1 15 : 1 0 96 961 1 15 : 3 3 96 960 2 15 : 1 6 96 960 5 15 : 2 0 10 S 10 4 15 : 2 0 1 10 4 15 : 3 5 20 100 3 15 : 2 4 10 100 3 15 : 3 5 96 960 5 15 : 3 1 96 960 5 15 : 4 5 96 960 9 15 : 4 6 96 960 9 15 : 5 7 10 100 2 15 : 5 6 1 100 2 16 : 0 5 1 100 1 16 : 0 0 20 100 1 16 : 0 5 96 961 0 16 : 0 1 96 961 0 16 : 0 9 96 960 3 16 : 1 6 96 960 3 16 : 2 0 96 961 2 16 : 2 6 96 961 2 16 : 3 0 20 10 1 16 : 2 6 1 10 1 16 : 3 5 1 10 4 16 : 3 0 10 10 4 16 : 3 5 96 960 8 16 : 3 6 96 960 8 16 : 4 0 96 960 2 16 : 4 6 96 960 2 16 : 5 0 96 961 1 16 : 5 5 96 961 1 17 : 0 0 10 100 3 16 : 5 6 1 100 3 17 : 0 5 1 100 2 17 : 0 0 20 100 2 17 : 0 5 96 961 3 17 : 0 5 96 961 3 17 : 1 0 96 960 5 17 : 1 5 96 960 5 17 : 2 0 96 960 9 17 : 2 5 96 960 9 17 : 3 0 20 100 1 17 : 2 6 1 100 1 17 : 3 5 1 10 1 17 : 3 0 10 10 1 17 : 3 5 96 961 0 17 : 3 5 96 961 0 17 : 4 0 96 960 3 17 : 4 5 96 960 3 17 : 5 2 10 10 4 17 : 5 5 1 10 4 18 : 0 5 96 961 2 17 : 5 8 96 961 2 18 : 0 5 1 100 3 18 : 0 0 20 100 3 18 : 0 5 4-66

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Level . Intermediate Blocking Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking LEVEL End of Intermediate Blocking. 2B The Advanced Section of Blocking continues on the next page. To jump to Runcutting, go to page - . 4-67