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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting 5.2 Intermediate Runcutting A block summary and Tip block diagram are In the previous section we looked at some basic runcutting concepts and worked often generated during LEVEL through a relatively straightforward example. However even in a "straightfor- the blocking step of scheduling. 2 ward" example we ran into some difficult issues and had to make a number of decisions. This only serves to highlight the complexities of runcutting. However, blocks may be altered by the runcutting process, making these important inputs AND outputs of the It should be noted that every agency, and every scheduler, approaches runcutting slightly runcutting process. differently. There are no universal approaches that can be applied to every scenario, since the inputs (described below) will rarely be the same from one agency to the next--most agencies will have at the minimum subtle differences in policies or work rules. And of course the blocks, relief locations, travel times etc. will always be different. Runcutting Inputs In the previous section we defined the required runcutting inputs to include a complete set of trips and vehicle blocks, all relevant defined rules, defined relief types and travel times, and known limitations, such as cost limits or work rule preferences. To produce effective runcuts the scheduler needs to work with a complete picture of what is required, and with a full set of the necessary input data. This applies to runcutting solutions of any complexity, size, or nature. As runcutting gets more complicated it is important to have several additional documents available to the scheduler: The Schedule. As we are creating detailed runs with specific times at relief locations we obviously need to see the detail of the schedule. Runcutting seldom changes the actual service schedule, which is often designed around service considerations. Blocks Summary. In order to match up starts and finishes, and to view the blocks in a summary form, we need to generate a blocks summary. This summary can simply show, for each block, the start and finish times, total length or duration, vehicle type, and garage. Blocks Diagram. This is the key tool in developing the runcut at a conceptual level. The blocks diagram simply shows one line or bar per block. Use of a spreadsheet for creat- ing the blocks diagram is critical, including effective use of color-coding (as we will see throughout this section). If a blocks diagram is not a routine output of the run blocking process the runcutter will need to create a blocks diagram before beginning the runcut. 5-38

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting Runcutting Outputs It is important that the outputs of the runcutting process be standardized as well. The follow- ing outputs are an integral part of developing runcuts. Run Guide. The run guide provides information about each run--start/finish time and location, total hours, type of relief, etc. It is built as the runs are created. As with all tools, if a spreadsheet is being used, maximize the use of formulas and minimize the use of "typed in" values. Runs Summary. The runs summary, produced at the end of the basic runcutting sec- tion, provides an overview of the totals of the runcut, including a breakdown of the components of runs (platform time, travel time, etc.). In some situations the Run Guide and the Run Summary may in fact be the same document or spreadsheet. When using a computerized scheduling system, many of the above items are provided auto- matically and can be viewed interactively (e.g., looking at the schedule while cutting runs). When using other approaches, spreadsheets and/or databases should be utilized as much as possible to minimize manual calculations, reduce errors, and improve the overall runcut qual- ity. Trips and Blocks The basic section of the blocking chapter provided an important tip: "Blocking is not done in isolation--it is an intermediate step between writing a schedule and developing driver assign- ments, and must be done with the ultimate goal of developing efficient and legal driver work pieces." However a typical blocking solution will focus more on the needs of the blocking pro- cess, and will not necessarily provide blocks that will cut neatly or efficiently into a final solu- tion. With this in mind we can revisit our runcut for Line . Again we start with a completed set of trips and vehicles blocks. But this time we will start with a significantly different view--that the blocks can potentially be adjusted as necessary to allow a more effective runcut to be pro- duced. Let us explore this a little further by using the example from the previous runcut. The key issue we had was the length of the splits, or the start/finish times of the peak pieces that we assumed would form those splits. In the previous section, the beginning runcutter was told to consider the blocks as fixed, which left some significant issues that resulted in a poten- tially less efficient runcut. The solution developed in that example required adding an operator (we used two part-time runs instead of one split). 5-39

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting Looking at the diagram of our blocks we can see that there are actually some starts and finish- es that, if combined, would allow us to create split runs within the prescribed -hour spread. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In particular we are referring to matching the start times of Blocks and with the end times of Blocks and . Looking at the start/finish times of our blocks below we can get a sense of whether this would allow split runs to be created within the -hour spread limit. Hours Summary Block Garage Depart Garage Arrive Hours 1 5:46 9:19 3:33 2 6:01 18:38 12:37 3 5:50 18:19 12:29 4 6:05 9:38 3:33 5 6:20 19:53 13:33 6 15:01 19:49 4:48 7 15:20 19:19 3:59 Total 54:31 Block starts at : (meaning a sign-on time of : ) and Block ends at : (meaning a sign off time of : ). Block starts at : ( : sign on) and Block ends at : (sign off of : ). This means we have sign-ons at : and : to match with sign offs at : and : . Logic tells us that the : sign on could not be paired with the : sign off as the spread would be : . So we need to match the : sign on (Block ) with the : sign off (Block ), and match the : sign on (Block ) with the : sign off (Block ). This would give us two split runs with spreads of : and : , respectively. The trick is to now generate pieces of work that will allow us to create two split runs with the above start and finish times. In essence we are trying to achieve what is shown in the following 5-40

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting diagram. The two white pieces represent the matching of Blocks and into one split run. The black pieces represent the matching of Blocks and into another split run. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 There are several ways to achieve this outcome. These are described below. 1. Recut the Pieces We cut the blocks into pieces as shown, using street or car reliefs, and create the runs accord- ingly. If this approach was used we would be left with one piece of Block and a piece of Block (from : AM onwards) to be matched together to form a straight run. In effect the operator would cover Block , pull into the garage, and then travel back out to make the relief on Block at around : AM. This is known as a two-piece or a multipiece run. The swing time between the two pieces would be paid. In practice, it is much more likely with a short swing time that the bus would remain on the street, either laying over or deadheading to the starting point of the next trip. Assuming Block was then cut at : (the same as our previous runcut) it would look something like the following diagram--the black run. Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 We then follow the same process for Blocks and (the PM pieces of our two split runs). The cuts are made at around : , leaving the PM pieces of Blocks and , both of which start around : , to be matched with Blocks and to create two multipiece straight runs. Again this is presented diagrammatically in the following figure. We have added two more multipiece straight runs, the white and black runs. 5-41

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 This leaves us with three more straight runs to create--the AM pieces of Blocks and , and the PM piece of Block . When created our completed diagram looks like the following. Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At this stage of course we have only created the runs conceptually and assumed a relief op- portunity will occur somewhere around the time required. Before we complete this runcut we need to optimize relief times based on the actual schedule. On the diagram below, we make a subtle change where the PM split piece on Block (white) is pushed forward a little earlier (to around : ) to allow enough time for the relief to be made, and our straight white run enough time to make the relief, return to the garage, and begin Block . Again, with a short swing time like this, it is much more likely that the bus would remain on the street. On Block for example we assumed a possible relief around AM. Fortunately, looking at the schedule, we see that there is a relief opportunity at : . It pays to look at specific potential relief times as you create the conceptual runs in the diagram. Next we work through the details of specific relief times and create the runs summary. The finished product is presented below. 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 21 Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5-42

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting We also made some changes to the conceptual runcut to minimize any overtime costs. If you compare with the previous diagram you can see we cut Block earlier (at : ). Below is our updated runs summary, color-coded to match the conceptual run diagrams developed above. We also need to consider the operational impacts of the revised runcut. Note in particular that Run has an issue. The cut at : means an arrival back at the garage at : . The run is then supposed to operate Block , a pull out, at : . This leaves only minute and that assumes the : relief is made on time and the -minute travel time back to the garage is achievable. Clearly this solution would create the potential for the : trip from Point A (the first in-service trip on Block ) to run late on a consistent basis. It is likely that the bus would remain on the street in this situation as well. Importantly we have now eliminated the split run of greater than hours--we had initially allowed this to illustrate the spread issues resulting from initial vehicle blocks. In reality this run, as shown in the initial solution, invalidated the entire run cut. Here we have found a more innovative approach and dealt with this problem successfully. We have also added some general complexity and potential service instability with the mul- tipiece runs and multiple reliefs. In general, simple is better for ease of operation. We need to be mindful as to whether the potential efficiency gains warrant the potential service quality impacts. This is a question that the scheduler must continually be asking as solutions are devel- oped and is central to the production of good scheduling outcomes. 5-43

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting Completed Runcut - Pieces ReCut Start End Run Block Report Sign Off Plat Report Paid Travel Total Spread Paid Pay/ Type Spread Guarantee Overtime # # Time Time Place Type Time Place Type Time Hours Hours Break Hours Hours Penalty Hours Plat 1 5:31 5:46 Garage Pull 9:19 Garage Pull 1 Str-M 6:33 0:30 0:40 0:20 8:03 8:03 0:00 0:01 0:00 8:04 1.233 5 10:09 A Street 13:09 A Street 13:34 2 Str 3 5:35 5:50 Garage Pull 12:39 A Street 13:04 6:49 0:30 0:10 7:29 7:29 0:31 0:00 0:00 8:00 1.174 3 Str 2 5:46 6:01 Garage Pull 12:09 A Street 12:34 6:08 0:30 0:10 6:48 6:48 1:12 0:00 0:00 8:00 1.304 4 5:50 6:05 Garage Pull 9:38 Garage Pull 9:43 4 Spl 7:43 0:50 0:10 8:43 12:44 0:00 0:21 1:22 10:26 1.353 3 13:44 14:09 A Street 18:19 Garage Pull 18:34 5 6:05 6:20 Garage Pull 10:09 A Street 10:24 5 Spl 7:18 0:50 0:20 8:28 12:48 0:00 0:14 1:24 10:06 1.384 2 14:44 15:09 A Street 18:38 Garage Pull 18:53 2 11:44 12:09 A Street 15:09 A Street 6 Str-M 6:59 0:30 0:01 0:20 7:50 7:50 0:10 0:00 0:00 8:00 1.146 7 15:20 Garage Pull 19:19 Garage Pull 19:34 3 12:14 12:39 A Street 14:09 A Street 7 Str-M 6:18 0:30 0:42 0:20 7:50 7:50 0:10 0:00 0:00 8:00 1.270 6 15:01 Garage Pull 19:49 Garage Pull 20:04 8 Str 5 12:44 13:09 A Street 19:53 Garage Pull 20:08 6:44 0:30 0:10 7:24 7:24 0:36 0:00 0:00 8:00 1.188 54:32 4:40 1:23 2:00 62:35 2:39 0:37 2:46 68:37 1.258 The result of this revised runcut is basically no change in total paid hours ( : as opposed to : in the previous cut). But we have reduced total operators required by one--in effect replacing two part time runs with one full-time split run. The benefits and costs of full-time and part-time runs will be discussed further in the next section. However, generally fewer runs mean reduced travels and report allowances. It may also reduce benefit costs when part-time operators are given paid benefits by the agency. We have also reduced the make-up time from over five hours to : (make-up time is one of the least productive components of paid time). This is offset to some extent by the introduc- tion of : of paid break--the intervening time between two pieces of the multipiece straight runs. Overall we could consider this to be a good result with no paid hours increase but a manpower reduction. And we achieved this without any change to the blocks or scheduled trips. A further refinement step could be undertaken to reconsider where the cuts were made with a view to offsetting any guarantee and overtime costs. 5-44

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting 2. Rehook the Trips The above section provided an example of how a runcut can be created using multiple pieces. But there can be limitations on the ability to create such runs (many labor agreements prohibit multipiece straights), or the operational complexity may be considered undesirable. In this case we can throw out the philosophy that runs are cut from blocks. We can consider that runs are simply a combination of trips that comply with labor agreement rules and meet the objectives of the blocks. Many schedulers keep the blocks mostly intact out of habit. How- ever if runs can be created as a series of trips, and the resultant blocks meet the original block- ing objectives, then why take the constrained starting point of the existing blocks? In our example the opportunity presents itself to revisit the blocks and create driver runs. In this case we only need to do some additional cutting and rehooking of blocks and don't pro- pose to start from scratch. So let's take the starting point of where we left off with our basic runcut--unable to create the split runs due to spread issues. The blocks are set out below. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A word of caution here. Any cutting and rehooking of blocks during the peaks runs the risk of increasing the number of vehicles required. This is not an option, under almost any circum- stance. There is no reason for the runcut to result in an increase in peak vehicle numbers, regardless of the number of vehicles in operation, the labor rules, or any other constraints. So as we rehook we simply avoid cutting any blocks during the peaks. Again we're focused on the issue of making our split runs work effectively by hooking the start of Block with the finish of Block and the start of Block with the end of Block The generic approach is to look at what happens with the blocks and link up around the edges of the peaks. Once the daytime off-peak pattern has been established (by AM in this case) there is little opportunity to rehook the blocks without affecting the number of vehicles being utilized. 5-45

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting We could simply take the pieces generated by our previous cutting process and turn those into our new blocks. Alternatively, we could revisit the linkup, particularly around the edges of the peaks, to generate blocks that meet our runcutting requirements. AM Blocks Example. Block currently arrives at Point D at : . As the service reduces from to minutes around this time there is no trip for it link to, and it pulls into the Garage at . . Here we take the : arrival and link it to the : departure. The Block : arrival (currently forms the : departure) pulls into the garage instead. PM Blocks Example. In the PM we take the : arrival on Block and link it to the : Block departure. This then leaves us with the remainder of Block , departing Point A at : and now requiring a pull out. The schedule at this time of day would then look like the follow- ing. Original - AM Block # Eastbound Westbound Old New Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 1 5:46 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 2 6:01 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 3 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 4 6:05 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 5 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 1 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 2 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 3 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 4 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 5 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 1 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 9:19 2 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 3 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 4 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 9:38 5 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:30 2 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 3 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:36 10:47 11:01 11:09 11:30 Revised - AM Block # Eastbound Westbound Old New Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 1 5:46 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 2 6:01 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 3 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 4 6:05 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 5 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 1 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 2 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 3 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 4 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 5 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 1 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 9:19 2 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 3 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 4 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:30 5 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:53 2 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 3 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:36 10:47 11:01 11:09 11:30 5 4 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:06 11:17 11:31 11:39 12:00 2 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:36 11:47 12:01 12:09 12:30 5-46

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting Original - PM Block # Eastbound Westbound Old New Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:36 13:47 14:01 14:09 14:30 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:06 14:17 14:31 14:39 15:00 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:36 14:47 15:01 15:09 15:15 3 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:06 15:17 15:31 15:39 15:45 6 15:01 15:21 15:32 15:46 15:54 16:00 5 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:36 15:47 16:01 16:09 16:15 2 15:15 15:23 15:37 15:48 15:51 16:02 16:16 16:24 16:30 7 15:20 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:06 16:17 16:31 16:39 16:45 3 15:45 15:53 16:07 16:18 16:21 16:32 16:46 16:54 17:00 6 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:36 16:47 17:01 17:09 17:15 5 16:15 16:23 16:37 16:48 16:51 17:02 17:16 17:24 17:30 2 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:06 17:17 17:31 17:39 17:45 7 16:45 16:53 17:07 17:18 17:21 17:32 17:46 17:54 18:00 3 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:36 17:47 18:01 18:09 18:19 6 17:15 17:23 17:37 17:48 17:51 18:02 18:16 18:24 18:30 5 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:06 18:17 18:31 18:39 19:00 2 17:45 17:53 18:07 18:18 18:38 7 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:36 18:47 19:01 19:09 19:19 6 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:06 19:17 19:31 19:39 19:49 5 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 19:53 Revised - PM Block # Eastbound Westbound Old New Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:36 13:47 14:01 14:09 14:30 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:06 14:17 14:31 14:39 15:00 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:36 14:47 15:01 15:09 15:15 3 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:06 15:17 15:31 15:39 15:45 6 15:01 15:21 15:32 15:46 15:54 16:00 5 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:36 15:47 16:01 16:09 16:15 2 7 15:05 15:15 15:23 15:37 15:48 15:51 16:02 16:16 16:24 16:30 7 2 15:20 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:06 16:17 16:31 16:39 16:45 3 15:45 15:53 16:07 16:18 16:21 16:32 16:46 16:54 17:00 6 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:36 16:47 17:01 17:09 17:15 5 16:15 16:23 16:37 16:48 16:51 17:02 17:16 17:24 17:30 2 7 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:06 17:17 17:31 17:39 17:45 7 2 16:45 16:53 17:07 17:18 17:21 17:32 17:46 17:54 18:00 3 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:36 17:47 18:01 18:09 18:19 6 17:15 17:23 17:37 17:48 17:51 18:02 18:16 18:24 18:30 5 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:06 18:17 18:31 18:39 19:00 2 7 17:45 17:53 18:07 18:18 18:38 The blocks are then updated in the diagram to show the new Blocks and (the PM change) and Blocks and (the AM change). The end result is two peak-only blocks (Blocks and ) that can form a split run within the spread requirements. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5-47

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting We then repeat the process to generate two more blocks (based on the start of Block and the end of Block ) that will allow another split run to be created from peak blocks. The process is the same. Looking at the above diagram we simply want to have Block finish after the AM Peak and have Block operate all day. In the PM Peak we want to have Block (the earliest finish) be a standalone PM Block, with Block taking the rest of Block 's day. One must be extremely careful during this process to keep track of the block numbers and changes through what is an iterative process. After making the changes as described above, the run guide is updated, and the blocks and runs are renumbered. The figures below provide the outputs of the process with a new runcut solution. The solution is provided including the finalized headway sheet (with revised block numbers and pull ins/pill outs), blocking diagram, and run guide. 5-48

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting Revised blocks for RunCut ROUTE 97 Broad Street DAY Weekday Eastbound Westbound Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 1 5:46 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 3 6:01 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 2 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 4 6:05 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 5 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 1 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 3 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 2 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 4 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 5 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 1 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 10:30 3 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 2 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 4 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:19 5 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:53 3 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 2 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:36 10:47 11:01 11:09 11:30 1 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:06 11:17 11:31 11:39 12:00 3 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:36 11:47 12:01 12:09 12:30 2 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:06 12:17 12:31 12:39 13:00 1 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:36 12:47 13:01 13:09 13:30 3 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:06 13:17 13:31 13:39 14:00 2 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:36 13:47 14:01 14:09 14:30 1 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:06 14:17 14:31 14:39 15:00 3 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:36 14:47 15:01 15:09 15:30 6 14:46 15:06 15:17 15:31 15:39 15:45 2 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:21 15:32 15:46 15:54 16:00 1 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:36 15:47 16:01 16:09 16:15 7 15:05 15:15 15:23 15:37 15:48 15:51 16:02 16:16 16:24 16:30 3 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:06 16:17 16:31 16:39 16:45 6 15:45 15:53 16:07 16:18 16:21 16:32 16:46 16:54 17:00 2 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:36 16:47 17:01 17:09 17:15 1 16:15 16:23 16:37 16:48 16:51 17:02 17:16 17:24 17:30 7 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:06 17:17 17:31 17:39 17:45 3 16:45 16:53 17:07 17:18 17:21 17:32 17:46 17:54 18:00 6 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:36 17:47 18:01 18:09 18:19 2 17:15 17:23 17:37 17:48 17:51 18:02 18:16 18:24 18:30 1 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:06 18:17 18:31 18:39 19:00 7 17:45 17:53 18:07 18:18 18:38 3 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:36 18:47 19:01 19:09 19:19 2 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:06 19:17 19:31 19:39 19:49 1 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 19:53 5-49

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2 Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Completed Runcut - Blocks Re-Hooked Start End Total Run Block Report Sign Off Plat Report Paid Travel Spread Paid Pay/ Type Work Spread Make-up Overtime # # Time Time Hours Hours Break Hours Penalty Hours Plat Time Place Type Time Place Type Hours 101 Str 1 5:31 5:46 Garage Pull 13:09 A Street 13:34 7:23 0:30 0:10 8:03 8:03 0:00 0:01:30 0:00:00 8:04:30 1.094 102 Str 1 12:44 13:09 A Street 19:53 Garage Pull 20:08 6:44 0:30 0:10 7:24 7:24 0:36 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.188 103 Str 2 5:35 5:50 Garage Pull 12:39 A Street 13:04 6:49 0:30 0:10 7:29 7:29 0:31 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.174 104 Str 2 12:14 12:39 A Street 19:49 Garage Pull 20:04 7:10 0:30 0:10 7:50 7:50 0:10 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.116 105 Str 3 5:46 6:01 Garage Pull 12:09 A Street 12:34 6:08 0:30 0:10 6:48 6:48 1:12 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.304 106 Str 3 11:44 12:09 A Street 19:19 Garage Pull 19:34 7:10 0:30 0:10 7:50 7:50 0:10 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.116 4 5:50 6:05 Garage Pull 10:19 Garage Pull 10:24 107 Spl 7:47 0:50 0:00 8:37 12:44 0:00 0:18:30 1:22:00 10:17:30 1.322 6 14:31 14:46 Garage Pull 18:19 Garage Pull 18:34 5 6:05 6:20 Garage Pull 9:53 Garage Pull 9:58 108 Spl 7:06 0:50 0:00 7:56 12:48 0:04 0:00:00 1:24:00 9:24:00 1.324 7 14:50 15:05 Garage Pull 18:38 Garage Pull 18:53 56:17 4:40 0:00 1:00 61:57 2:43 0:20 2:46 67:46 1.204 In terms of efficiencies this solution is the lowest cost of the three developed thus far--a total of : paid time compared to : and : for the previous two solutions. It retains the six straight runs and four split runs of the previous solution, ensuring manpower requirements are minimized. Operationally the outcome is a completed set of legal runs, with the two full-time splits, and with no multipiece or tight connection issues. In fact Block could run an additional round trip departing Point A at : and Point D at : --thus keeping the -minute frequency out for an additional minutes with no labor cost implications. This is a classic example of benefits obtained when the runcut and blocking interaction is iterative in nature. 5-50

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting Before this (or any) solution is completed we must go back and recreate the car "runs," ensur- ing that we know when the car(s) are used, who will be driving them, and when they arrive and depart the garage. The above example allowed us to work through some reasonably straightforward examples of how revisiting the blocks can assist in producing a better runcut solution. But there are nu- merous other situations where revisiting the blocks can enhance the runcut solution. Some of these are discussed below. Rehooking a School Extra In some transit systems school trips are blocked separately. The reasons for this are numer- ous, and for now we simply accept that our blocks may have such occurrences. Usually this will be evident as soon as we look at our block graph. The example below will show, again without needing to look at numbers or details, a block that could potentially be rehooked during the runcut. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Block Exercise caution when Tip 1 hooking school trips to 2 regular daily runs. School schedules 3 4 are often variable with schedule 5 6 changes that may not be compatible 7 8 with run assignments. BLOCKS 7 AND 8 Here we have added a new block (block ) to cover a short school trip. It then pulls back into the garage. In this example the block has only minutes of revenue time but minutes of platform time--one short school trip with a garage pull either side. By rehooking the blocks to add this trip to the front of Block we could potentially create a more efficient run and even reduce total platform time. The reduction would be achieved by removing the pull in on Block and pull out on Block , and replacing them with a direct deadhead between the end of Block and the start of Block , and possibly some layover. Of course this would only be achievable if there is enough time for the bus to get from where the school tripper ends to the starting point of Block . However if this achievable we are likely to produce a better runcut solution, and deal effectively with a block that would otherwise be difficult to assign. But should we do this? It could depend on several factors. 1. Is it agency policy to keep school trippers separate? Sometimes school trips are offered as additional overtime and are intentionally kept separate. 5-51

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Chapter 5. Runcutting Level . Intermediate Runcutting 2. Often school trips are kept separate to deal with changing bell times--for example, if the school gets out minutes later on one day per week our nice rehook suddenly does not work on that day. You will need to consider such questions and understand how your agency approaches such issues. If the runcutter is not the same person who develops schedules and blocks at your agency, it is important to maintain good communication between all to understand the intent behind how the blocks were created. As with many aspects of scheduling the decision includes some form of value judgment and needs to be informed by as much relevant information as possible. If in the end such changes are made, the blocking sheets, run guides, and any other documents need to be updated accordingly. A Recap In working through these examples we have actually dealt with many of the important con- cepts relating to runcutting. Let's list a few below: Types of runs. The basic run types, which are most suitable in specific cases, and some of the impacts of each. Relief types. The types of reliefs that can be used and how to create runs with those relief types. Cutting pieces. How we decide when and where to cut pieces that will be used to form runs. Matching pieces. How we match pieces (in our examples, of split runs) to create full runs. Shifting pieces. Changing which relief opportunities we used to cut pieces to create the most efficient and effective overall solution. Reliefs. How to choose which relief opportunities to cut pieces. Revisiting blocks. Some instances where we may want to rehook some blocks to achieve better runcut outcomes. Improving runcut efficiencies. Looking at combinations of the above methods to re- duce the overall runcut cost. Congratulations, you're now doing most of the things that sophisticated computerized sys- tems attempt to mimic! Initially we presented runcutting as a complex mathematical problem with myriad inputs, requirements, preferences, and outcomes. However in working through the above examples we have actually considered much of what is required to produce even more complex runcuts. 5-52

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Level . Intermediate Runcutting Chapter 5. Runcutting LEVEL End of Intermediate Runcutting. 2 The Advanced Section of Runcutting continues on the next page. To jump to Rostering, go to page - . 5-53