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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering rostering 6.1 Basic Rostering--Rosters and Their Purpose The process of grouping daily op- erator runs into packages of weekly LEVEL 1 work assignments. The finished Rostering is the process of grouping daily operator runs into packages of weekly product is known as a roster or a work assignments. Operators are generally given the opportunity, based on order bid package. of seniority, to pick their work for the next period of time. This period of time is often called a sign-up period or bid period. At most agencies, sign-ups generally occur three sign-up or four times a year, so the bid period might last for three or four months. The process in which operators se- Rosters have a list of work assignments, indicated in the example below by the roster number. lect work assignments. Most agen- Assignments may include mixtures of runs, such as: cies have three or four sign-ups each year. Sign-up is also called Weekday runs only "bid," "line-up," "pick," "shake-up," Weekday runs and a Saturday run and "mark-up." Weekday runs and a Sunday run Weekday runs, a Saturday run, and a Sunday run sign-up or bid period The period of time that a specific Roster WeeklyPay sign-up is in effect, usually three or No. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Hours four months. 1001 Off 1018:00 1018:00 1018:00 1018:00 1018:00 Off 40:00 1002 Off 1028:00 1028:00 1028:00 1028:00 1028:00 Off 40:00 1003 70110:00 10310:00 10310:00 10310:00 Off Off Off 40:00 1004 Off Off 10410:00 10410:00 10410:00 10410:00 Off 40:00 1005 Off 1058:00 1058:00 1058:00 1058:00 1058:00 Off 40:00 1006 Off 10410:00 Off Off 10310:00 10310:00 60110:00 40:00 In the example, roster numbers are four digits and all run numbers are three digits. Weekday runs begin with , Saturday runs begin with , and Sunday runs begin with . Each agency has its own numbering convention. Weekly work assignments typically include five daily runs, each close to or over eight hours. Some agencies use -hour daily runs, in which case the roster would also include assignments with four daily -hour runs (see Roster No. and in the example). Normally, these runs are not allowed to go too far over hours per day. 6-3

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering Rosters generally remain in effect throughout the sign-up period. In the event that a roster is line pick permanently vacated, the agency may hold a line pick in between scheduled sign-ups to fill the A sign-up held in between sched- roster. Typically, only operators with less seniority than the prior holder of the vacated roster uled sign-ups to fill one or more are eligible to bid. A line pick may also be held on one route only if there have been significant runs permanently vacated due to schedule changes to the route during the sign-up period. Minor changes to a trip or series illness, disability, or termination. of trips made during the sign-up period (due to detours or minor running time problems) are Only operators with less seniority usually addressed by means of a "patch" or temporary modification. An agency's labor agree- than the prior holder of the vacated ment may restrict the conditions under which a patch can be used. run are eligible to bid. Also, a special sign-up held on one route Larger agencies operating out of multiple garages may also hold a system sign-up. This pro- only due to a significant schedule vides operators an opportunity to transfer to another garage. Typically, one scheduled sign-up change during the sign-up period during the year may be designated as a system sign-up. on the route. Types of Rosters patch Building a roster of weekly work is carried out in one of two ways, depending on agency policy and work rules: A temporary modification to a trip or series of trips on a route imple- agency-developed rosters, built by the schedulers mented during the sign-up period to operator-developed rosters (also known as cafeteria-style rostering), assembled by account for a detour or to address individual operators at the time of bidding based on their seniority minor running time problems. Agency-Developed Rostering system sign-up The roster shown above is an example of an agency-developed roster. The agency packages A scheduled sign-up during which daily runs and days off into a weekly work assignment. Operators then pick their work from operators may transfer from one garage to another. System sign- the list of weekly rosters. ups are usually held no more than When developing a roster under this scenario the scheduler is trying to achieve a number of once a year. At intermodal agen- outcomes, including: cies, the system sign-up may allow an operator to transfer between Meet the requirements of the labor agreement. As always this is the highest and most modes as well. stringent consideration. Typically the labor agreement will mandate areas including number of days worked, minimum/maximum weekly (or period) hours, days off require- ments, minimum rest breaks, run type limitations, etc. Achieve high levels of efficiency. This outcome can be defined in a number of ways but probably will include minimizing operator requirements (defined as roster lines), and minimizing pay hours. Meet operator preferences inclusive of days off patterns, types of runs operated, rest breaks, and other working conditions. 6-4

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering agency-developed As is often the case, the scheduler is trying to balance efficiency requirements against pre- rostering ferred working conditions. The process in which the transit Agency-developed rosters may be simple one-run patterns or may be complex combinations agency packages daily runs into of runs, days off, and patterns. weekly work schedules or rosters in advance of the sign-up. The opera- Cafeteria-style or Operator-Developed Rostering tors then select from the prepared In cafeteria-style rostering, an operator can choose both specific daily runs and days off from rosters. a master list of all runs and all available days off. The name comes from how customers in a cafeteria choose individual food items that make up their meal. cafeteria-style The schedule department will rostering MASTER RUN LIST AND MASTER DAYS OFF LIST develop and post a Master The process in which operators Run List containing all week- Weekday Runs Saturday Runs Sunday Runs create their own rosters by select- day, Saturday, and Sunday runs Run # Pay hours Run # Pay hours Run # Pay hours ing daily runs and days off from a and a master list of available 101 8:00 601 10:00 701 10:00 master list. days off for the sign-up. In re- 102 8:00 602 8:45 702 8:00 ality the schedule department 103 10:00 603 8:15 703 8:21 master run list is primarily an administrator 104 10:00 604 8:00 of the rostering process under 105 8:00 A list containing all weekday, 106 8:22 Saturday, and Sunday runs. The this scenario, as opposed to 107 8:45 Master Run List may be the Run having responsibility for cre- Available Runs - Five Day Rosters Guide or some variation of the Run ation or development of the Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Guide. Typically used in cafeteria rosters. 702 101 101 101 101 101 602 rostering. 703 102 102 102 102 102 603 The example of master lists 105 105 105 105 105 604 shown below uses the same posting 106 106 106 106 106 numbering scheme for runs as 107 107 107 107 107 Notification to operators of all work in the previous example. The Available Days Off - Five Day Rosters assignments that will be available list of available days off shows Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat for selection during the next sign- the total number of days off 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 up. Runs are posted for cafeteria that may be chosen for each Available Runs - Four Day Rosters rostering; rosters are posted for day of the week. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat agency-developed rostering. Runs 701 103 103 103 103 103 601 and rosters are posted for a number Note that in the master lists, 104 104 104 104 104 of days prior to the start of actual runs and days off are listed separately for four-day and Available Days Off - Four Day Rosters bidding to provide time for opera- five-day rosters. Some transit Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat tors to study their options prior to 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 making their selection. systems that use cafeteria ros- 6-5

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering tering and have both / and / rosters have agreements with their unions to use agency-de- extraboard veloped rosters for the / s, because cafeteria rostering does not always work well for / s. A group of operators who provide coverage of vacant runs and other In addition, a master list of available extraboard (relief, stand-by) assignments is posted along work on a daily or weekly basis. with a master list of eligible operators. The operator list is typically sorted in order of descend- Operators may pick the extraboard ing seniority and includes the day and time of each operator's turn to pick listed next to his or during a sign-up or may be as- her name. Picking runs and days off can be as simple as initialing the desired run and days off signed to the extraboard if no more on the master lists. runs are available. Schedule and/or operations department personnel, and sometimes Union personnel, usually "officiate" during the sign-up to ensure that operators pick work according to the seniority list stand-by time and that all rules governing the cafeteria roster and sign-up process are followed. Time that an operator spends at the There are several variations within cafeteria-style rostering, often based on specific constrain- garage at the agency's direction awaiting assignment of a run or a ing elements of the labor agreement or past practice. Constraints can include: piece of work. Usually associated Days off must be consecutive unless consecutive days are no longer available. with a report by an extraboard Routes cannot be mixed during the work week if the same route is available for all days. operator, stand-by is intended to Run types (straight/split) cannot be mixed until necessary to form a full weekly provide a pool of operators that will assignment. be available to fill runs vacated by unscheduled absences. A minimum number of off-duty hours must separate each run picked. Implications of Each Approach make-up time Agencies that use cafeteria rostering believe that operators are more conscientious about the Time added to an operator's work quality of their work when they have more control over their work hours and assignments. This hours to bring the total up to the can translate into non-quantifiable benefits such as good customer relations as well as into guaranteed minimum (usually eight quantifiable benefits such as lower absenteeism, reduced worker compensation claims, and hours per day or 40 hours per fewer accidents. week). Full-time operators often have an eight-hour guarantee, even Under cafeteria rostering, senior operators often pick runs greater than eight hours in length if their runs are short of eight hours. to qualify for more overtime pay. Since senior operators usually earn the most and pick first; this can increase agency costs and leave junior operators with runs that pay eight hours or less. If your property uses a As a result, some senior operators earn high levels of weekly overtime while junior operators Tip cafeteria-style bid, it is are left with weekly assignments that pay less than hours. If there is a -hour paid weekly important to monitor to ensure that guarantee, the transit agency ends up paying more make-up time. the runs being selected are "legal" and follow the rules established by A significant issue related to cafeteria-style rostering can be that while the senior operators your contract and practice. Errors (i.e., those who get to pick the work first) are able to achieve their preferences, the less senior allowed in bidding may result in operators tend to have the "leftover" less-desirable work days from which to construct their costly rebids. 6-6

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering Many transit agen- workweeks--late runs, weekend work, lower-paying runs, etc. This can lead to a trend of higher Tip cies roster the work for turnover of less senior staff. drivers in advance and let drivers "bid" or pick work from runs that Systems that use agency-developed rostering argue that preassembled rosters can be devel- have already been packaged into oped in a more cost-effective manner and thus save money. This is especially true for agencies a weekly work schedule or roster. with no daily guarantee of eight hours pay and with weekly instead of daily overtime pay. In Other agencies let drivers pick in- these cases, the agency can combine runs of over eight hours with runs of under eight hours dividual daily assignments. If your into a weekly assignment of hours, thus minimizing overtime and make-up pay. agency rosters work in advance, it is important for you to know the The example below shows potential cost savings for an agency using agency-developed roster- policy on the number of straight ing without a daily guarantee and daily overtime. One long run of : can be combined with and split runs, consecutive days off, four smaller runs to achieve a weekly assignment of hours with no overtime and no make- and other work rules that impact the up pay. roster. Savings can be accrued even if overtime is calculated daily. In the example, if daily overtime is paid (at time and a half) but there is no daily guarantee, then total pay hours would be : . ROSTER WITH DAILY MAKE-UP AND DAILY OVERTIME Weekly An agency can achieve Time Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Total Tip Platform Off Off 7:50 7:50 7:50 7:50 8:40 significant cost savings using agency-developed rostering if Guarantee 0:10 0:10 0:10 0:10 make-up pay and overtime pay are Overtime 0:20 calculated on a weekly basis. Pay Hours 8:00 8:00 8:00 8:00 9:00 41:00 ROSTER WITH WEEKLY MAKE-UP AND WEEKLY OVERTIME Weekly Time Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Total Platform Off Off 7:50 7:50 7:50 7:50 8:40 Guarantee Overtime Pay Hours 7:50 7:50 7:50 7:50 8:40 40:00 In the absence of daily guarantees and overtime, savings are possible with cafeteria rostering. However, these savings would occur randomly and would not reach the potential savings as- sociated with agency-developed rostering. 6-7

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering Roster Examples This section provides examples of rosters using the Route example from previous chapters. Both agency-developed and cafeteria rosters are shown. The basic section of the runcutting chapter (Chapter ) prepared a run guide for Route . This will serve as our starting point in developing rosters. The run guide is shown below. Option 1 - Completed Run Cut Start End Run Block Report Sign Off Plat Report Travel Total Spread Paid Pay/ Type Spread Guarantee Overtime # # Time Time Hours Hours Hours Hours Penalty Hours Plat Time Place Type Time Place Type 101 Str 2 5:46 6:01 Garage Pull 12:09 A Street 12:3 4 6:08 0:30 0:10 6:48 6:48 1:12 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.304 102 Str 2 11:44 12:09 A Street 18:38 Garage Pull 18:5 3 6:29 0:30 0:10 7:09 7:09 0:51 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.234 Calculate the number of Tip operators you will need. 103 Str 3 5:35 5:50 Garage Pull 12:39 A Street 13:0 4 6:49 0:30 0:10 7:29 7:29 0:31 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.174 104 Str 3 12:14 12:39 A Street 18:19 Garage Pull 18:3 4 5:40 0:30 0:10 6:20 6:20 1:40 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.412 105 Str 5 6:05 6:20 Garage Pull 13:09 A Street 13:3 4 6:49 0:30 0:10 7:29 7:29 0:31 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.174 (Number of Weekday Runs x 5 + Number of Saturday Runs + 106 Str 5 12:44 13:09 A Street 19:53 Garage Pull 20:0 8 6:44 0:30 0:10 7:24 7:24 0:36 0:00:00 0:00:00 8:00:00 1.188 Number of Sunday Runs) / 1 5:31 5:46 Garage Pull 9:19 Garage Pull 9:24 107 Spl 8:21 0:50 0:00 9:11 14:18 0:00 0:35:30 2:09:00 11:55:30 1.428 6 14:46 15:01 Garage Pull 19:49 Garage Pull 20:0 4 5 Day Work Week = 108 Pt 4 5:50 6:05 Garage Pull 9:38 Garage Pull 9:53 3:33 0:30 0:00 4:03 4:03 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 4:03:00 1.141 Number of Operators Required 109 Pt 7 15:05 15:20 Garage Pull 19:19 Garage Pull 19:3 4 3:59 0:30 0:00 4:29 4:29 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 4:29:00 1.126 54:32 4:50 1:00 60:21 5:21 0:35 2:09 6 8:27 1.255 Because Route operates only on weekdays, available days off are on Saturdays and Sundays only. In this example and for weekday-only service in general, the number of available days off on Saturday and on Sunday is equal to the number of weekday runs that may be picked by operators. One of the important factors that rostering tells us is how many operators we need. The table below shows a formula for computing the total number of operators needed and the number of available days off by day. This table uses a hypothetical number of daily, Saturday, and Sun- day runs. 6-8

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering OPERATORS REQUIRED FOR 8-HOUR RUNS Weekly total Day # daily runs # days per week (daily runs * days) Weekdays (M-F) 120 5 600 Saturdays 54 1 54 Sundays 26 1 26 Weekly Total 680 Total Operators (weekly total runs / 5 days of work per operator) 136 DISTRIBUTION OF DAYS OFF Operators off each day Total # operators # daily runs (# operators - # daily runs) Weekdays (M-F) 136 120 16 Saturdays 136 54 82 Sundays 136 26 110 Weekly Total (weekdays * 5 + Saturday + Sunday) 272 OPERATORS REQUIRED FOR 10-HOUR RUNS Weekly total Day # daily runs # days per week (daily runs * days) Weekdays (M-F) 100 5 500 Saturdays 40 1 40 Sundays 40 1 40 Weekly Total 580 Total Operators (weekly total runs / 4 days of work per operator) 145 DISTRIBUTION OF DAYS OFF Operators off each day Total # operators # daily runs (# operators - # daily runs) Weekdays (M-F) 145 100 45 Saturdays 145 40 105 Sundays 145 40 105 Weekly Total (weekdays * 5 + Saturday + Sunday) 435 6-9

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering Note that in the eight-hour example, it would not be possible to supply each operator with consecutive days off (which is a requirement in the contracts of most moderate- to large-sized systems). The reason is the difference between the number of Saturday runs and Sunday runs. In this case, the difference is ( Saturdays minus Sundays). We have already calculated that operators will be off each weekday. (Note the operators off each weekday, or calcu- lated another way, the Saturday runs plus Sunday runs would equal pieces of work on weekends that must be accounted for in days off. This number is divided by , the number of days each relief operator will work each week, to equal the .) Since is less than , runs will have to have split days off. If the union contract does not allow this, the sole alternative, which is expensive, may be to detail runs on Saturday to the extraboard or allow them to be bid by operators on their days off at overtime. The use of part-time operators to cover the open Saturday runs may be another option, contingent upon the labor agreement. The lesson here is to make sure your transit system does not get out of balance in the amount of service provided on Saturday versus Sunday. To calculate the number Tip of days off required in a Applying these formulas to Route , with nine weekday runs and no weekend service: given week. OPERATORS REQUIRED FOR 8-HOUR RUNS ON ROUTE 97 Total days off = Number of Operators required x Number of days off per week Weekly total Day # daily runs # days per week (daily runs * days) In a traditional five-day work week Weekdays (M-F) 9 5 45 the number of days off per week is Saturdays 0 1 0 two. Sundays 0 1 0 Weekly Total 45 Total Operators (weekly total runs / 5 days of work per operator) 9 DISTRIBUTION OF DAYS OFF Operators off each day Total # operators # daily runs (# operators - # daily runs) Weekdays (M-F) 9 9 0 Saturdays 9 0 9 Sundays 9 0 9 Weekly Total (weekdays * 5 + Saturday + Sunday) 18 We can check this total by multiplying the number of operators ( ) by the number of days off per week required by each ( ) to equal the weekly total of operator days off ( ). 6-10

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering Agency-Developed Rosters As stated above, under the agency-developed rostering approach, operators pick their weekly work from a master list of weekly rosters, "Lines of Work." An agency will typically consider several variations before deciding on the final master list to post. Agency-developed rosters typically have an operator work the same workweek repeatedly, but operators can also cycle through more than one line of work over the course of the sign-up period. The fixed workweeks (Lines of Work) may also allow the introduction of a Rotating Roster, where the operators cycle through the Lines of Work on a weekly (or other) rotation. line of work A common convention for the format used for the master list of weekly rosters is shown here: A weekly work package, developed Roster Weekly Work during rostering, that comprises a No. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Hours fixed set of runs and days off for a # # # # # set workweek. 1001 Off Off xx:xx x:xx x:xx x:xx x:xx x:xx rotating Under this numbering convention, a series number is used as the weekly roster number (rotary) roster to avoid confusion with the numbers used to represent daily runs. "#" represents the daily run A roster where operators cycle number under each day of the week, and "x:xx" represents the work hours associated with the through the weekly Lines of Work run. Daily work hours can be summed across days to obtain weekly work hours. If preferred, over the course of the sign-up pay hours can be substituted for work hours. period. As with many of the processes described throughout this manual the potential exists to use either "automated" or "manual" methods. Automated methods refer to use of computerized scheduling systems to develop rosters, based on a range of user-defined inputs. Manual in this context assumes the use of spreadsheets to assist in development of rosters. The level of sophistication of the spreadsheet depends upon user spreadsheet experience/competence. We will discuss further how rosters can be enhanced by at least some basic spreadsheet automa- tion. 6-11

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering Our first effort at developing a roster for Route might look like this: ROSTER - Route 97 (variation 1) Roster Weekly Make-up Spread Weekly Pay No. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Hours Hours Overtime Hours Hours 1001 Off 101 101 101 101 101 Off 6:48 6:48 6:48 6:48 6:48 34:00:00 6:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1002 Off 102 102 102 102 102 Off 7:09 7:09 7:09 7:09 7:09 35:45:00 4:15 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1003 Off 103 103 103 103 103 Off 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 37:25:00 2:35 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1004 Off 104 104 104 104 104 Off 6:20 6:20 6:20 6:20 6:20 31:40:00 8:20 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1005 Off 105 105 105 105 105 Off 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 37:25:00 2:35 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1006 Off 106 106 106 106 106 Off Generally the best rosters 7:24 7:24 7:24 7:24 7:24 37:00:00 3:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 Tip have as many runs close 1007 Off 107 107 107 107 107 Off 9:11 9:11 9:11 9:11 9:11 45:55:00 0:00 2:57:30 10:45:00 59:37:30 to the eight-hour daily target as 1008 Off 108 108 108 108 108 Off possible. However, every property is 4:03 4:03 4:03 4:03 4:03 20:15:00 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 20:15:00 different, and it is always important 1009 Off 109 109 109 109 109 Off to understand your property's work 4:29 4:29 4:29 4:29 4:29 22:25:00 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 22:25:00 rules before you move to rostering. Total 301:50:00 26:45:00 2:57:30 10:45:00 342:17:30 This roster features consistent runs in each assignment. Rosters through are full- time rosters, while Rosters and are part-time rosters. There is an extensive amount of make-up time in this roster, but because this example draws from only one route, there are fewer options for hooking trips and cutting runs. Are there any "tweaks" that we could make to this roster to enhance efficiency? If the primary concern were high levels of overtime, then addition of / work assignments would be worth exploring. To digress for a moment, overtime is not necessarily a bad thing, since it can mini- mize the number of operators. Arguments in favor of minimizing the number of operators include: Fewer operators translate to lower costs for benefits such as medical premiums and pension obligations. In good economic times when jobs are plentiful, it is often difficult to recruit a sufficient number of operators. 6-12

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering Minimizing the number of operators translates directly to developing rosters with higher levels of overtime. The tradeoff is often seen in purely economic terms: the added cost of benefits for a new operator versus higher overtime costs. There is also an important argument against minimizing the number of operators: Longer work hours can potentially result in increased number of accidents (due to fa- tigue behind the wheel) and increased absenteeism. Another possible change is to mix and match daily runs to bring each roster as close to weekly pay hours as possible. This alternative, shown as variation , assumes that overtime and make-up time are paid on a weekly, not a daily, basis. ROSTER - Route 97 (variation 2 - weekly overtime and make-up) Roster Weekly Make-up Spread Weekly Pay No. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Hours Hours Overtime Hours Hours 1001 Off 101 101 101 101 101 Off 6:48 6:48 6:48 6:48 6:48 34:00:00 6:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1002 Off 102 102 102 102 102 Off 7:09 7:09 7:09 7:09 7:09 35:45:00 4:15 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1003 Off 103 103 103 103 103 Off 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 37:25:00 2:35 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1004 Off 107 107 104 104 104 Off 9:11 9:11 6:20 6:20 6:20 37:22:00 2:38 0:00:00 4:18:00 44:18:00 1005 Off 105 105 105 105 107 Off 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 9:11 39:07:00 0:53 0:00:00 2:09:00 42:09:00 1006 Off 106 106 106 106 106 Off 7:24 7:24 7:24 7:24 7:24 37:00:00 3:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1007 Off 104 104 107 107 105 Off 6:20 6:20 9:11 9:11 7:29 38:31:00 1:29 0:00:00 4:18:00 44:18:00 1008 Off 108 108 108 108 108 Off 4:03 4:03 4:03 4:03 4:03 20:15:00 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 20:15:00 1009 Off 109 109 109 109 109 Off 4:29 4:29 4:29 4:29 4:29 22:25:00 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 22:25:00 Total 301:50:00 20:50:00 0:00:00 10:45:00 333:25:00 The shortest full-time work assignment in variation is : , compared to : in variation , and no roster involves work in excess of hours per week. Why does weekly overtime and make-up time make a difference? Variation shows the same roster as variation , but with daily overtime and make-up pay. Compare Roster in both examples. In variation , the combination of runs over and under eight hours results in no over- time, since weekly hours do not exceed , and only : in make-up time. In variation , the agency must pay overtime for Run on Wednesday and Thursday (total overtime of : hours, 6-13

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering which translates to an additional : pay hours), and must pay make-up time for the other days ( : on Monday and Tuesday and : on Friday for a total of : in make-up time). To- tals in variation are identical to variation . ROSTER - Route 97 (variation 3 - daily overt i me and make-up) Roster Weekly Make-up Spread Weekly Pay No. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Hours Hours Overtime Hours Hours 1001 Off 101 101 101 101 101 Off 6:48 6:48 6:48 6:48 6:48 34:00:00 6:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1002 Off 102 102 102 102 102 Off 7:09 7:09 7:09 7:09 7:09 35:45:00 4:15 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1003 Off 103 103 103 103 103 Off 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 37:25:00 2:35 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1004 Off 107 107 104 104 104 Off 9:11 9:11 6:20 6:20 6:20 37:22:00 5:00 1:11:00 4:18:00 47:51:00 1005 Off 105 105 105 105 107 Off 7:29 7:29 7:29 7:29 9:11 39:07:00 2:04 0:35:30 2:09:00 43:55:30 1006 Off 106 106 106 106 106 Off 7:24 7:24 7:24 7:24 7:24 37:00:00 3:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 40:00:00 1007 Off 104 104 107 107 105 Off 6:20 6:20 9:11 9:11 7:29 38:31:00 3:51 1:11:00 4:18:00 47:51:00 1008 Off 108 108 108 108 108 Off 4:03 4:03 4:03 4:03 4:03 20:15:00 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 20:15:00 1009 Off 109 109 109 109 109 Off 4:29 4:29 4:29 4:29 4:29 22:25:00 0:00 0:00:00 0:00:00 22:25:00 Total 301:50:00 26:45:00 2:57:30 10:45:00 342:17:30 Pay-to-Platform Rat io 1.255 Many agencies believe that it is important for an operator to work the same weekday run every day. The operator becomes more familiar with the route and also gets to know regular pas- sengers who ride at the same time every day. Agencies supporting this view are willing to ac- cept some additional cost in order to achieve route and passenger familiarity. Variation may or may not be acceptable to such agencies, because only four of the seven full-time rosters are consistent throughout the week. At other agencies, operators may prefer the variety of working different runs or routes to relieve boredom (and the potential of related fatigue). The scheduler should be aware of preferences at his or her specific system. Union-management relations might also be a factor. The operators' union might prefer rosters featuring work assignments with overtime, or might prefer less overtime and more work as- signments. The optimal situation is a union-preferred roster that is the least expensive among various alternatives, but agencies may be willing to accept some additional cost (with the em- phasis on "some") to accommodate union preferences. 6-14

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering This brings us to an important point which has been emphasized throughout this manual: the scheduler should be focused on providing the best quality operational outcome for the given cost. This applies strongly to rostering where a number of trade-offs can be made (such as days-off patterns or rest times) to reduce costs, or even to provide a better quality solution within the same costs. Evaluating the Agency-Developed Rosters Choosing among roster variations can involve consideration of a number of factors. Before making a final decision, an agency needs to understand fully the cost and operational implica- tions of different rosters. Comparison charts are frequently used to present quantifiable information to aid in the evalu- pay-to-platform ratio ation of variations. An example comparison chart for the three variations of agency-developed The ratio of pay hours to platform rosters for Route is shown below. time. For example, if an operator receives 9:00 in pay for 8:00 of COMPARISON CHART FOR THREE ROSTER VARIATIONS FOR ROUTE 97 platform time, the pay-to-platform ratio is 1.125 (9:00/8:00). The pay- Variation 1 Variation 2 Variation 3 to-platform ratio is one of the most Total hours for all weekly rosters 301:50:00 301:50:00 301:50:00 widely used methods of measur- @ Straight time 295:55:00 301:50:00 295:55:00 ing runcut efficiency and is often @ Overtime (time and a half) 5:55:00 0:00:00 5:55:00 used to measure the impacts of @ Make-up 26:45:00 20:50:00 26:45:00 non-platform items (such as report @ Spread time (half-time over 10 hours) 21:30:00 21:30:00 21:30:00 allowance or relief allowances) on Pay hours 342:17:30 333:25:00 342:17:30 operator pay hours. Some systems use the inverse, the ratio of platform Number of operators required 9 (7/2) 9 (7/2) 9 (7/2) to pay hours. Total platform hours 272:40:00 272:40:00 272:40:00 Pay-to-platform ratio 1.255 1.223 1.255 Variation and Variation are identical, as noted earlier. Variation is the least expensive roster, because it has no overtime and less make-up time. Variation results in a savings of : : per week. Variation also has the lowest pay-to-platform ratio. The number of op- erators is the same under all three scenarios. Computerized scheduling systems allow a more qualitative comparison of roster outcomes. Preferred parameters can be quantified to check one solution against the next, without the scheduler having to wade through large tables or columns. The result can be rosters of im- proved quality which translates to an enhanced work environment for operators. 6-15

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Chapter 6. Rostering Level . Basic Rostering Cafeteria Rosters Under the cafeteria rostering approach, operators build their own rosters by picking their weekly work from the master run list and the master days off list. These master lists are either the actual Run Guide shown earlier or derived directly from the Run Guide. The Route Run Guide was shown in the agency-developed rosters example. The calculations for required number of operators and number of available days off are identi- cal for cafeteria rosters. Runs and days off are posted, and operators make their own weekly assignment by selecting from available runs and available days off. Cafeteria rostering is simpler for the agency, since it does not have to prepare and evaluate ros- ter alternatives. However, those responsible for the sign-up process must check the numbers of available runs at the end of each day of the sign-up in order to be certain that no run was picked twice or that an odd number of work or days off were left open. The operations depart- Agencies with weekly ment usually manages the sign-up process for cafeteria rostering, so for schedulers, cafeteria Tip (but not) daily guarantees rostering often means much less work (the schedules department is invariably responsible for often benefit more from agency- agency-developed rosters). Agencies that use cafeteria rostering consider it a positive in terms developed rosters and should avoid of employee morale, since operators design their own work week. The downsides are that ( ) cafeteria rostering if possible. the agency cannot count on generating cost savings through effective rostering and ( ) less senior operators are often left with very undesirable work weeks. While there are many arguments pro and con, agencies with weekly but not daily guarantees, should avoid cafeteria rostering if at all possible because of the inefficiencies previously dis- cussed. If there are daily guarantees, then, as indicated above, the choice can be either. 6-16

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Level . Basic Rostering Chapter 6. Rostering LEVEL End of Basic Rostering. 1 The Intermediate Section of Rostering continues on the next page. To jump to Rail Scheduling, go to page - . 6-17