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Glossary Glossary as well as inform travelers of bus status. AVL is a potential source of running time and on time performance data for scheduling, but Agency-developed rostering is the process in which the transit only if an archival reporting system is included. agency packages daily runs into weekly work schedules or rosters in advance of the sign-up. The operators then select from the pre- Average weekday is a representative weekday in the operation of pared rosters. the transit system computed as the mathematical average of data for several typical weekdays. A typical weekday is one where there Alternate-fuel buses are buses using low-polluting fuels in place of are no anomalies such as high ridership due to extra service added diesel or gasoline. Examples of alternate fuels include compressed for a special event or low ridership due to inclement weather. Some natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), ethanol, methanol, schedulers claim that this does not really exist. Average Saturday and propane. Electric or hybrid electric vehicles also fall within this and average Sunday are determined in the same way. definition. Banging out the schedule is a rail scheduling term for the process AM block is a block that is in service only during the AM peak pe- of scheduling trips on lines that share a common segment in such a riod. way that spaces the trains on the common segment or eliminates conflicts with two trains running too close together. If the spaces AM peak period is the period in the morning when the greatest on the common segment are evenly apart this is the rail equivalent level of service is provided, typically to AM. of "intertiming." Articulated bus is an extra-long ( to feet) bus with the rear Barn see garage body section connected to the main body by a joint mechanism which allows the vehicle to bend when in operation for sharp turns Base see garage and curves and yet have a continuous interior for passenger move- ment. Base block is a block that is in service during the AM peak, midday, the PM peak and possibly the evening periods. Straight runs are Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) systems count the number often cut from base blocks. of boardings and alightings at each stop while also noting time, lo- cation, and direction. Infrared beams are the most common means Base period includes the hours between the AM and PM peak peri- used in counting. Stop location is identified through the use of data ods, during which ridership is generally lower than in peak periods. sources such as global positioning systems (GPS), signpost emitters, Also known as "midday" or "off-peak period." GIS maps, odometer readings, and inertial navigation. Data from all Base vehicles are the number of vehicles required to operate the these sources must be extensively compiled (from multiple buses/ route at the required headway during the base period. Quickly cal- trips on a route) and processed, either by an on-board computer or culated as: cycle time in the base period divided by headway in the centrally, to be meaningful. base period. Also referred to as "base period vehicle requirement." Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems are vehicle tracking Bid see sign-up systems that function by measuring the real-time position of each vehicle and relaying this information back to a central location. The Bid package see rostering vehicle location is identified through the use of global positioning systems (GPS). The information is used to assist transit dispatchers Bid sheet see run guide G-3
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Glossary Block is a vehicle (or train) assignment that includes the series of Bus hours see vehicle hours trips operated by each vehicle from the time it pulls out to the time it pulls in. A complete block includes a pull-out trip from the garage Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a form of bus service that, through im- followed by one or (usually) more revenue trips and concluding with provements to infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling, is intended a pull-in trip back to the garage. Also known as "coach" or "train." to enhance service quality compared to an ordinary bus line. Fea- tures may include exclusive right-of-way, signal priority, widely Block graph is a graphical representation of all blocks assigned to spaced stops, higher capacity vehicles with special branding, sta- a garage that must be considered in the runcut solution. The graph tions, headway-based schedules, and off-bus fare collection. includes, at a minimum, the start and end times of each block, and may also include terminal times and all eligible relief times. Un- Cafeteria-style rostering is the process in which operators create derstanding the number and duration of all blocks is an important their own rosters by selecting daily runs and days off from a master requisite in reaching an optimal runcut solution. list. Block number is a unique number associated with a specific block, Car hours see vehicle hours used to track the block throughout the scheduling process and as a Car pooling is the use of an automobile to ferry more than one means of identification for the operations department. operator between the garage and a relief location, or even between Block straightening is the procedure of looking at blocks once the two relief locations. blocking process is finished and rehooking block beginnings or ends Check-out time see clear allowance to yield blocks that will be more efficient in the runcut process. For instance, a block that is hours long might be extended by swap- Clear allowance is the amount of time paid to an operator at the ping next trips with another block to extend to hours, which conclusion of the run to turn in transfers, fare media, or other sup- would offer a better runcutting potential. plies and reports. Also known as "turn-in allowance" and "check out time." Block summary table provides a summary of vehicle statistics, including platform hours and mileage, by block. Coach see block Blocking is the process in which trips are "hooked" together to Collaterals include all of the various types of penalties and premi- form a vehicle assignment or block. ums that might be required to make legal runs. Blocking sheet is a sheet listing all blocks that also includes the Comments see note trips and times for all trips within each block. Consist (pronounced CON-sist) is a rail term that refers collectively Board see paddle or extraboard to the rail cars comprising a train, i.e., a four-car train is a four-car consist. Bonus time see make-up time Crew block is the series of trips operated by each train crew from Boost time see make-up time pull-out to pull-in. The crew block will differ from the train block if Branch is one of two or more outer route segments served by a drop-backs are scheduled for the crews. single route. G-4
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Glossary Cycle time equals the round trip running time plus layover time. Exception scheduling is scheduling activity undertaken to address This is also known as "round-trip cycle time" or "round-trip time." major construction detours or delays, sporting events, holiday ser- vice, or other special situations. Deadhead is the time and distance that a bus needs to travel in places where it will not pick up passengers. Deadheading is typi- Express service is a service generally connecting residential areas cally required to get buses to and from their garage, or when bus with activity centers via a high-speed, non-stop route with limited operators need to travel from one route or point to another during stops at each end for collection and distribution. Park-and-ride lots their scheduled work day. Also known as "non-revenue travel." are a common feature of express service at the residential end of the route. Similar to limited-stop service, but with a long non-stop Deadhead hours include pull-in time, pull-out time, and deadhead segment. time from one route or point to another. Extraboard is a group of operators who provide coverage of vacant Deadhead miles include pull-in mileage, pull-out mileage, and runs and other work on a daily or weekly basis. Operators may pick deadhead mileage from one route or point to another. the extraboard during a sign-up or may be assigned to the extra- Depot see garage board if no more runs are available. Also known as "the Board." Dispatch sheet is a list of all runs or blocks sorted by start time, Fall-back see drop-back typically used by operations to track staff and vehicle movements Fit-in point see pull-on location throughout the day. Free running time is the absence of a specified running time along District see garage a given segment, with an estimated arrival time at the end of the Division see garage. Division may represent a group of garages segment. Frequently used on the express portion of an express bus with some common labor and/or management organization. trip, free running time is a component of headway-based schedules and is sometimes included on the last segment of a local route. Dovetailing see intertiming Frequency is the number of vehicles passing a point on a route Drop-back is a technique where the operator or train crew gets off within a given unit of time, usually expressed as X vehicles per hour. an arriving vehicle at a terminal, takes layover, and assumes opera- See also "headway." Headway is the inverse of frequency: a fre- tion of the next vehicle to arrive. Most common on frequent rail quency of six buses per hour is equivalent of a headway of / hour lines where close headways do not allow sufficient layover time for or minutes. the train crew, this technique is also used for special events to maxi- mize the number of trains in service. If service is very frequent, the Full-time operator is an operator available to work full-time runs train crew may not board the next train but instead the train after and eligible to receive full benefits. A full-time operator is usually that; this is called a "double drop-back." Some agencies use the guaranteed hours of work per week. Typically, full-time opera- term "fall-back" instead. tors can select either a full-time run or a split run, or can choose to work on the extraboard. End of the line (EOL) see terminal Full-time run is a work assignment whose total hours equal or exceed the guaranteed minimum number of hours for a full-time operator. Also known as a "regular run." G-5
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Glossary Garage is the place where vehicles are stored and maintained Hub see transit center and where operators report for their assignments. Also known as "barn," "base," "depot," "district," "division," "station," or "yard." Inside time see swing time See also "storage lot." Interlining is the use of the same vehicle on a block operating on Garage relief is an operator relief that occurs at the garage. more than one route with the same operator, without returning to the garage during route changes. This is most often done at com- Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation mon terminals or for routes sharing a common trunk. system that provides accurate and continuous location informa- tion. Tunnels, terminals, and urban street canyons can limit GPS Interspersing - See intertiming accuracy. Intertiming is the process of scheduling trips of two or more routes Guarantee time see make-up time that share a common segment in a manner that evenly spaces the trips over the common segment. Intertiming is intended to provide Hawk see owl more frequent service for those passengers who begin and end their trips within the shared segment. Also known as "interspers- Headway is the interval of time between two vehicles running in ing" and "dovetailing". the same direction on the same route, usually expressed in min- utes. See also "frequency." Frequency is the inverse of headway: Intervening time see swing time a headway of minutes is equivalent to a frequency of one bus every ten minutes or six buses per hour. "Headway" is sometimes Layover time is the time between the scheduled arrival and depar- used by operations personnel to designate a gap in service or a ture of a vehicle at a transit terminal. Often used interchangeably missing bus. with "recovery time," although technically layover time is rest time for the operator between trips while recovery time is time built into Headway sheet is a document that displays all time points and the schedule to ensure an on-time departure for the next trip. In trips on a route. Usually includes run numbers, block numbers, and this manual, layover and recovery are calculated together, and the pull-in and pull-out times. Used interchangeably in this manual with total time between trips is referred to as layover. "master schedule," and also known as "recap" or "rotation." Light rail is a fixed-guideway mode of transit service using electri- Heavy rail is transit service using rail cars with self-contained, self- cally propelled rail cars that draw current from overhead wires, propelled motive capability, driven by electric power usually drawn operated on reserved but not necessarily grade-separated right- from a third rail, operated on exclusive right-of-way with level of-way. Light rail generally utilizes shorter trains (at times one-car platform boarding. Heavy rail generally utilizes longer trains and trains) and shorter spacing between stations than heavy rail and longer spacing between stations than Light Rail. may also operate in streets with mixed traffic. Hooking is the process of attaching the end of a trip in one direc- Limited-stop service is a service typically operating on arterial tion to the beginning of a trip the other direction. A block is a series streets that makes stops only at major points along the route. of hooked trips. Also see "rehooking" below. Similar to express service, but without a lengthy non-stop segment. Hot is a term used to describe a trip that leaves a time pointearly. Line check see point check Such a trip is "running hot." G-6
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Glossary Line of work is a weekly work package, developed during rostering, Master schedule is a document that displays all time points and that comprises a fixed set of runs and days off for a set workweek. trips on a route. Usually includes run numbers, block numbers, and pull-in and pull-out times. Used interchangeably in this manual with Line pick is a sign-up held in between scheduled sign-ups to fill one "headway sheet," and also known as "recap" or "rotation." or more runs permanently vacated due to illness, disability, or ter- mination. Only operators with less seniority than the prior holder Match-up sheet is a listing of all arrival and leave times of all routes of the vacated run are eligible to bid. Also, a special sign-up held at a particular terminal. This sheet simplifies the process of interlin- on one route only due to a significant schedule change on the route ing trips. during the sign-up period. Maximum load point is the location along the route where the Line-up see sign-up passenger load is greatest. The maximum load point can differ by direction and by time of day. Long or complex routes may have Lines of work see rostering multiple maximum load points, one for each segment. Also known Loading standard is the agency-established goal for passenger as "peak load point." loads (not the maximum vehicle load, which is considerably higher). Meet is when two trains, on two different tracks (in single-track The loading standard is usually expressed as a percentage of seated operation, one train is on a passing siding), converge at the same capacity, as the maximum number of standees, or as the maximum location. load. The loading standard often varies over the day, with peak- period loading standard higher than off-peak periods. Some agen- Midday period see base period. cies also specify a time or distance duration that certain loads are allowed (e.g., % for up to minutes). The loading standard Miss see miss out is used to calculate demand-based headways during the various Miss out is the term applied when a scheduled operator does not periods of the service day. report on time for his/her assignment. Also known as "no show" or Make-up time is time added to an operator's work hours to bring "miss." the total up to the guaranteed minimum (usually eight hours per Mode is a type of transit service characterized by vehicle or opera- day or hours per week). Full-time operators often have an eight- tional features. Common transit modes include motorbus, trolley- hour guarantee, even if their runs are short of eight hours. Other bus, light rail, heavy rail, commuter rail, and demand-response. terms include "guarantee time," "boost time," "bonus time," and "pad time." Multipiece runs are runs made up of pieces from multiple blocks. In most cases, split runs are inherently multipiece runs. But either Manifest see paddle half of a split run could itself have multiple pieces, cut from multiple Mark-up see sign-up blocks. Master run list is a list containing all weekday, Saturday, and Sun- Multipiece straight see straight run day runs. The Master Run List may be the Run Guide or some varia- Node see transit center tion of the Run Guide. Typically used in cafeteria rostering. Non-revenue travel see deadhead G-7
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Glossary No-show see miss out Overtime premium is pay at the rate of . times (or higher) the normal rate for work performed in excess of daily or weekly thresh- Note is text associated with a trip or a specific time pointon a trip. olds, usually eight or ten hours per day or hours per week. Typically reported on scheduling outputs such as headway sheets and paddles, it can be an essential part of posting information for Owl is a run that operates during the late night/early morning hours the operator's pick. A subset of notes may also be exported to pub- to provide all-night service. Also known as "hawk." lic timetables. Notes often describe exceptions, e.g., "trip does not operate when school is closed" or "trip departs from Gate X". Also Paddle is an output of the scheduling process that provides the known as "comments." operator with information regarding his or her workday--what time the work day starts/ends, how to get to/from relief locations, the Off-peak period see base period trips to be operated, times at all timepoints, and notes. If an opera- tor drives on more than one route in the day, the paddle will have On-board count see ride check all trips shown sequentially, as well as travel paths between routes On-board tally see ride check if needed. The paddle may also include a list of route turns, route maps, farebox, headsign, and radio codes, and key intersections On-street relief is the process where, at a specific time during and stops that must be announced. Also known as "trip sheet," a specific trip on a block, one operator's run ends and another "board," "manifest," and "schedule." operator's run begins. The relief may occur at a terminal or at a designated point along the route (possibly close to the garage). Pad time see make-up time On-street relief is used to minimize pull-out and pull-in miles and Paid relief see travel time hours. Operators are usually paid travel time between the garage and the relief point. Reliefs may also occur at the garage; these are Part-time operator is an operator who works less than hours a know as "garage reliefs." week. The maximum number of hours that a part-time operator can work per week is often specified in the contract. A part-time On time is defined specifically by each system; a trip is considered operator may not receive the full benefits of a full-time operator, on time if it arrives or departs from a time pointwithin a specified and may be paid at a lower wage rate. range of time. A typical range is to minutes after the scheduled arrival/departure time. A trip that leaves a time pointearly is re- Part-time run see tripper ferred to as "hot" or "running hot." Passenger load is the number of passengers carried on one or One-way trip see trip more vehicles at any point on a route. Of particular interest is the maximum passenger load on a route or segment. Open run is a run which was not bid at the previous sign-up or has been vacated during a sign-up due to retirements, terminations, Passengers per minute (PPM) is the measurement of how many long-term illnesses and such. people accumulate every minute at all bus stops waiting for service in the direction being analyzed. Outside time see spread time Patch is a temporary modification to a trip or series of trips on a route implemented during the sign-up period to account for a de- tour or to address minor running time problems. G-8
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Glossary Pattern see service pattern and schedule pattern round-trip cycle time divided by headway. Also referred to as "peak vehicle requirement." Path see variant and service pattern Peak vehicle requirement see peak vehicles Pay hours are the number of hours for which an operator is paid at his/her rate. Pay hours include work hours, make-up time, over- Pick see sign-up time premium, spread premium, and any other adjustments called for in the contract. Pieces are portions of a run, especially distinct portions separated by a break. Pay-to-platform ratio is the ratio of pay hours to platform time. For example, if an operator receives : in pay for : of platform Piece balancing is the process in which the scheduler strives to time, the pay-to-platform ratio is . ( : / : ). The pay-to- balance the number of AM and PM pieces to increase the possibil- platform ratio is one of the most widely used methods of measur- ity of creating split runs that are in accord with formal and informal ing runcut efficiency and is often used to measure the impacts of rules and to leave a balanced number of AM and PM trippers for the non-platform items (such as report allowance or relief allowances) extraboard to cover. on operator pay hours. Some systems use the inverse, the ratio of Platform time, a phrase derived from the early th century days platform to pay hours. when motormen and conductors operated from the "platform" Peak load point see maximum load point of a streetcar, includes all time when the operator is operating the vehicle. Layover time and pull-in and pull-out time are part of Peak periods are the hours during which ridership is highest, usu- platform time, but report allowance and clear allowance, and travel ally in the morning and afternoon commute times (e.g., to AM time (unless part of a pull-in or pull-out) are not. Similarly, platform and to PM). Sometimes expressed as peak hour, the hour of miles include all miles traveled while the operator is operating the highest ridership, it can also refer to the period during which the vehicle. Also known as "vehicle hours." most frequent service is operated, e.g., peak minutes. PM block is a block that is in service only during the PM peak pe- Peak of the peak is the absolute busiest time interval (measured in riod. short increments such as or minutes, depending on headway) during the peak period, in terms of passenger demand and service. PM peak period is the period in the afternoon when the greatest level of service is provided, typically to PM. Peak-to-base ratio is the ratio between the number of buses or trains required to operate the schedule during the higher of the Point check is a technique to collect information about passenger peak periods and by the number of buses in service in the "base" loads and schedule adherence at a single location (or point), typi- period between the peaks. A peak-to-base ratio of . means that cally a time point or a location where branches of a route diverge. twice as many buses are required to operate peak period service Also known as "line check." as midday service. The peak-to-base ratio greatly influences the Posting is the term used for notification to operators of all work runcut in terms of the number of straight and split runs that are assignments that will be available for selection during the next possible. A higher ratio means more split runs. sign-up. Runs are posted for cafeteria rostering; rosters are posted Peak vehicles are the maximum number of vehicles required to for agency-developed rostering. Runs and rosters are posted for a operate the route at the required headway. Quickly calculated as G-9
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Glossary number of days prior to the start of actual bidding to provide time Pull reliefs are reliefs made by pulling out one vehicle and pulling in for operators to study their options prior to making their selection. another vehicle. Premium pay is pay to an operator that is over and above the Pull time see pull-in time and pull-out time straight time pay rate; includes overtime premium, spread premi- um, shift premium, and any other operating premiums as defined Pulse center see transit center by the contract. Pulse transfer see timed transfer Pull-in is the non-revenue movement of a vehicle from its last Recap see headway sheet or master schedule scheduled terminal or stop to the garage. Recovery time see layover time Pull-in miles are the distance the vehicle travels from the route to the garage, and are included in vehicle miles, but not in revenue Regular run see full-time run miles. Collectively, pull-in miles and pull-out miles are also known as pull miles and are components of deadhead miles. Rehooking is the process of changing how trips are linked into a block. This is done when evaluating blocks and during the runcut- Pull-in time is the time the vehicle spends traveling from the route ting process. to the garage. Pull-in time is included in vehicle hours, but not in revenue hours. Collectively, pull-in time and pull-out time are also Relief is the replacement of one operator on a vehicle by another known as pull time and are components of deadhead time. operator on the same vehicle. The first operator may be going on a break or may be ending his/her work day. The second operator may Pull miles see pull-in miles and pull-out miles be starting his/her work day or coming back from a break. Pull-off location is the place on a route where a vehicle ends rev- Relief allowance see travel time enue service. Relief location is a designated point on a route where operators or Pull-on location is the place on a route where a vehicle begins rev- crews may be scheduled to begin or end their run or a piece of their enue service. Also referred to as a "fit-in" point. run. This can include the garage itself. Also known as "relief point." Pull-out is the non-revenue movement of a vehicle from the garage Relief opportunities are times within a block when reliefs could be to its first scheduled terminal or stop. scheduled, typically at the end of a trip or when the vehicle passes a specified relief location. Pull-out miles are the distance the vehicle travels from the garage to the route, and are included in vehicle miles, but not in revenue Relief point see relief location miles. Collectively, pull-in miles and pull-out miles are also known as pull miles and are components of deadhead miles. Relief run is a run that is available as a result of other operators' day off selections. Some rosters are made up of several different Pull-out time is the time the vehicle spends traveling from the ga- relief runs. rage to the route. Pull-out time is included in vehicle hours, but not in revenue hours. Collectively, pull-in time and pull-out time are Relief time see travel time also known as pull time and are components of deadhead time. Report see show-up G-10
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Glossary Report allowance is the amount of time paid an operator from Round-trip cycle time see cycle time sign-in time to pull-out time. During this time, the operator may obtain instructions and supplies pertinent to his/her run, locate the Round-trip time see cycle time assigned vehicle, and perform a pre-trip inspection. Route is a defined series of stops along one or more streets be- Report time see sign-in time. Sometimes used to refer to report tween two terminal locations designated by a number and/or a allowance. name for identification internally and to the public. Revenue hours are the number of hours of service available to pas- Run is a work assignment for an operator. Most often, run refers to sengers for transport on the routes. Excludes deadhead hours, but a whole day's work assignment. includes layover time. Calculated for each route and for the system Runcutting is the process of converting (or cutting) vehicle blocks as a whole. into work assignments for operators. The finished product is re- Revenue miles are the number of miles of service available to ferred to as a runcut. passengers for transport on the routes. Excludes deadhead miles. Run guide is a summary of runs that describes start/finish loca- Calculated for each route and for the system as a whole. tions, work hours, and cost element breakdowns. The Run Guide is Revenue service is when a vehicle is in operation along a route and the principal document that describes all of the runs available for is available to the public. bid. Also known as "Bid sheet" or "Run list." Ride check is a technique to collect information about boarding Run list see run guide and alighting at every stop, in addition to passenger loads and Running time is the time it takes for a vehicle to travel the length schedule adherence at all time points. Ride checks may also in- of a route or between two specific points on a route. Scheduled clude data collection on type of fare paid, stop announcements, or running time is time assigned in the schedule. Actual running time other information of interest to the agency. Ride checks are more is time observed in the field. One-way running time is time in one labor-intensive than point checks, but provide more complete data direction along the route. Round-trip running time is time in both for a given route. Also known as "on-board count" or "on-board directions combined. Running time does not include layover time. tally." Sometimes referred to as "travel time," although this term has an Rostering is the process of grouping daily operator runs into pack- alternate meaning as defined below. ages of weekly work assignments. The finished package is known Run number is the number assigned to each work assignment on a as a roster, a bid package or lines of work. specific day. At some systems, the run number is unique only when Rotating (rotary) roster is a roster where operators cycle through used in combination with a designator for the garage or the route the weekly Lines of Work over the course of the sign-up period. or route group number. Rotation see headway sheet or master schedule Run summary is a list of runs showing start/finish times, hours worked, and paid hours. Payroll systems use the Run Summary. Round-trip is a trip that travels along a route and then returns to its original starting point; a combination of two one-way trips on a Schedule is a document showing trip times at time points along a route. route. The schedule may also include additional information such G-11
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Glossary as route descriptions, deadhead times, interline information, run Service standards are performance requirements expressed in sys- numbers, and block numbers. tem policies. Service standards are normally established in areas such as cost efficiency (cost per unit of service), service effective- Schedule pattern is a summary of the schedule in terms of run- ness (boardings per unit of service), cost effectiveness (cost and ning times between time points and layover time at terminals. subsidy ratios), passenger loading, and schedule adherence. Many The schedule pattern can be repeated throughout the day or can agencies also have service policies that guide the development of change as running times and layover times change during the day. routes and schedules. Also known as "service guidelines." School extras see school trips Shake-up see sign-up School trips or school service are additional scheduled trips at Shift premium is a premium paid to operators for working during school bell times to accommodate the heavy loads associated with times of the day that are subject to special pay differentials, e.g., an student ridership along a route. School trips are typically inserted owl (late night/early morning) run. into the schedule for no longer than necessary to address ridership demand. As with other service, these trips are scheduled to meet Short turn is a trip that terminates at an intermediate point instead demand, are open to the public, and are included on public time- of traveling the full length of the route. Short turning is frequently tables. Also known as "school trippers" and "school extras." used to add capacity to a specific segment of the route. Also known as "turnback" or "short line." School trippers see school trips Short line see short turn Service area, in its broadest definition, is the area in which a tran- sit agency provides service. This may also be defined as the area Show-up is an assignment for an extraboard operator to be at a within a convenient walking distance (such as ¼ mile) of a route or specific location to fill in for a miss out or to do other work. A cer- a stop. For the purposes of compliance with the Americans with tain amount of stand-by time is paid in the event that the operator Disabilities Act, service area is the area within ¾ mile of a fixed does not receive a run. Also known as "report." route service. Show-up time see sign-in time Service curve is a plot of the number of buses in service by hour. See also vehicles in operation graph. Sign-in time is the time an operator is assigned to report for duty at the start of each piece of a run. The operator may be required to Service guidelines see service standards sign in or may be acknowledged by the dispatcher as having re- ported. Also known as "report time," "sign-on time," or "show-up Service pattern is the unique sequence of stops associated with time." each type of trip on a route. If all trips operate from one end to the other on a common path the route has one service pattern. Sign-on time see sign-in time Branches, deviations or short turns introduce additional service patterns. Service patterns are a fundamental component of sched- Sign-up is the process in which operators select work assignments. uling and provide the framework for tracking running time, gener- Most agencies have three or four sign-ups each year. Sign-up is ating revenue trips, and identifying deadhead movements for the also called "bid," "line-up," "pick," "shake-up," and "mark-up." route. Also referred to as "trip pattern," "variant," or "path." G-12
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Glossary Sign-up period is the period of time that a specific sign-up is in ef- of work. Usually associated with a report by an extraboard opera- fect, usually three or four months. tor, stand-by is intended to provide a pool of operators that will be available to fill runs vacated by unscheduled absences. Slipping and sliding is the process of shifting one or more trips forward or backward in time to achieve a specific purpose. Also Storage lot is a bus storage area remote from a garage, used to known as "trip shifting." minimize deadhead mileage or due to capacity constraints. Span of service is the length of time, from the beginning of the Straight run is a run in which trips are consecutive without inter- first trip to the end of the last trip, during which service operates on ruption. Straight runs do not contain any breaks (except for meal the street. Span of service can be expressed for a route or for the breaks at some systems) for the operator. Any break in a straight system as a whole. run is usually less than one hour in length. A straight run with a break is referred to as a two-piece straight or multipiece straight. Split run is a run containing two or more pieces of work separated by a break over one hour in length. Also known as a "swing run." Swing run see split run At some systems, three-piece split runs are allowed, but one of the breaks (or "swings") is usually paid whereas in two-piece split runs Swing time is the elapsed time (usually unpaid) between the pieces the break is generally not paid. Split runs tend to be used to allow of a split run. Also known as "intervening time." If swing time is both peaks to be covered by one operator since the work day would paid, it is sometimes called "inside time." otherwise be too long for a straight run. System bid see system sign-up Spread bonus see spread premium System line-up see system sign-up Spread pay see spread premium System mark-up see system sign-up Spread penalty see spread premium System pick see system sign-up Spread premium is pay at the rate equal to one-half or more of all System shake-up see system sign-up minutes in excess of a specified maximum spread time, in addition to regular straight pay. The spread premium may be multilayered, System sign-up is a scheduled sign-up during which operators may e.g., half time up to minutes over the specified maximum spread transfer from one garage to another. System sign-ups are usually time and three-quarters or all time more than minutes over the held no more than once a year. At intermodal agencies, the system specified maximum spread time. Spread premium is separate and sign-up may allow an operator to transfer between modes as well. distinct from overtime premium. Also known as "spread penalty," Also known as "system bid," "system mark-up," "system pick," "spread bonus," or "spread pay." "system shake-up," and "system line-up." Spread time is the total time between the start of the first piece Terminal is one end point of a route where trips usually begin and and the end of the last piece of a split run with two or more pieces. end. Short turns and branches introduce additional terminals. Also Also known as "outside time." known as "end of the line" or EOL. Stand-by time is the time that an operator spends at the garage at the agency's direction awaiting assignment of a run or a piece G-13
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Glossary Three-piece run is a run made up of three pieces of work separated Transfer center see transit center by two intervals of time. Generally, one of the intervals in a three- piece run is paid time. Transfer window is the layover time scheduled at timed transfer locations to ensure that transfer connections can be made, and Through-routing is a form of interlining in which a vehicle switches may also refer to the amount of time past its scheduled departure from inbound service on one route to outbound service on another time that a vehicle can be held at a transfer location to wait for a route while continuing in service throughout the day. late arriving vehicle. Timed transfer is a transfer made easier and more certain for pas- Transit center is an area designed to be served by multiple routes. sengers by the process of scheduling two or more routes to meet A transit center may be on-street or off-street, but in either case at a given location at a specific time. A short layover may be pro- stop locations are established to facilitate passenger connections vided at the timed transfer point to ensure that connections can be and safe vehicle movement. In radial networks, transit centers made even if one vehicle is running slightly behind schedule. Timed were located in downtown areas. With the emergence of hub-and- transfers have become more important with the growth of hub- spoke networks, an agency may utilize multiple transit centers and-spoke network designs. Also known as a "pulse transfer." (or hubs). Also known as "transfer center," "pulse center," "hub," "transit hub," and "node." Time point is a designated location on a route used to control the spacing of vehicles along the route. As a rule, vehicles should not Transit hub see transit center pass through a time point either before or after the specified time on the schedule. A route may contain several time points depend- Travel time is paid time allowed for an operator to travel between ing on its overall length. As a rule of thumb, time point spacing the garage and a relief location. If the travel is for relief purposes is usually every seven to minutes along a local route, and time only and is not part of a pull-in or pull-out, then travel time is not points are designated where possible at major intersections, major included in platform time. Also known as "relief time," relief allow- trip generators, and key destinations. ance," and "paid relief." Timetable is a document containing route and time information Trip is the one-way operation of a vehicle between two points on produced for use by riders. a route. Trips are usually noted as inbound, outbound, eastbound, westbound, etc., to identify directionality. Also known as "one-way Traffic check is a generic term used to describe any technique trip." to collect ridership and time-related data. Point checks and ride checks can also be referred to as traffic checks. Trip pattern see service pattern Traffic checkers are individuals who conduct ride checks or point Tripper is a short piece of work whose total time is less than that checks to collect ridership and time-related data. specified as constituting a full-time run. A tripper is often a piece of work in the AM or PM peak period that cannot be combined with Train see block another piece of work to form a split run because of insufficient hours, excessive swing time, or excessive spread time. Trippers are Train block is the series of trips operated by each train from the often operated by extraboard or part-time operators. Also known time it pulls out to the time it pulls in. A complete block includes a as "part-time run." Tripper can also refer to a vehicle that pulls out, pull-out trip from the yard followed by one or (usually) more rev- makes no more than one round-trip, and pulls in. enue trips and concluding with a pull-in trip back to the yard. G-14
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Glossary Trip sheet see paddle and headway sheet Yard balancing is the process of ensuring that the number of train cars pulling into a specific yard at the end of the service day equals Trip shifting see slipping and sliding the number that pulled out at the beginning of the service day. On Trunk is the common portion of a route with branches; more rail lines served by more than one yard, the same vehicles do not broadly, a section of a corridor served by multiple routes or trip necessarily return to the same yard. Only the count in each yard types. must be the same at the end of the day as the beginning. Turnback is the location where a short turn trip turns around to begin service in the opposite direction. Sometimes used to refer to the short turn trip itself. Turn-in allowance see clear allowance Two-piece run is a run made up of two pieces of work separated by an interval of time. The pieces will usually be on different blocks and may be on different routes. Two-piece straight see straight run Variant is a series of stops that describe a unique path. See "Ser- vice Pattern." A service pattern follows one or more variants. Vehicle hours are total hours of travel by a vehicle, including hours in revenue service (including layover time) and deadhead travel. Also known as "bus hours" for bus. "Car hours" is the term used for rail. Vehicle miles are total miles of travel by a vehicle, including hours in revenue service and deadhead travel. Vehicles in operation graph is a graphical representation of the number of vehicles in operation by time of day, typically by route but also by garage or system. See also service curve. Work hours are the total hours worked by an operator, not includ- ing fringe benefit hours such as sick leave, holiday, etc. Work hours include only labor hours associated with the requirements of put- ting the runs in service and operating the service. Yard is the rail equivalent of "garage," the place where rail vehicles are stored and maintained. G-15
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