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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building 3.4 Advanced Schedule Building--Adjusting a More Complex Schedule Based on Check Data LEVEL Schedulers are often in the position where minor changes need to be made to ex- 3A isting schedules. The previous section showed how to analyze traffic check data to find instances where the present schedule is no longer functioning properly. In the case of Route , both the ridership and running time have increased beyond the ability of the schedule to properly do its job. The scope of change is clear from the preceding section: additional running time is needed in the PM peak and an additional trip is also needed to bring loads down within prescribed stan- dards. The change will require at least one additional bus, because the layover in the present schedule is as tight as possible. The first step is to calculate the new round trip cycle with the additional running time to see what effect this will have on the bus count. The second step is to change the headway from to minutes in the peak of the PM peak. The longest round trip running time (using the longest branch, to Libby & Wishram as we did the first time) is now + = minutes. We are presently scheduling a -minute inter- val/headway. If we were to continue to use nine buses, it would give us a -minute cycle ( buses x -minute headway). So even without the addition of a trip to achieve eight minute service in the peak of the peak, the additional running time leaves insufficient layover on sev- eral trips. The example below tries unsuccessfully to fit the new running times into the existing schedule. Several southbound trips (highlighted in gray) have either no layover or negative layover time, and layover time on northbound trips is too tight to adjust. 3-50

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Level . Advanced Schedule Building Chapter 3. Schedule Building S C H E D U L E S H E E T - R e vis e d runn in g tim e s in o rig ina l s c h e d u le Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O N D AY T H R U F RID AY NO RTHB O U ND S O UTHB O U ND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 2 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 16:52 3 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:05 4 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:42 16:51 17:03 17:16 17:15 11 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:52 17:01 17:13 17:25 17:28 5 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:02 17:11 17:23 17:36 17:36 12 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:12 17:21 17:33 17:45 17:53 13 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:22 17:31 17:43 17:56 18:05 6 16:32 16:46 16:58 17:06 17:17 17:20 17:32 17:41 17:53 18:05 18:25 1 16:45 16:56 17:08 17:16 17:27 17:30 17:41 17:49 18:00 18:12 18:35 2 16:52 17:06 17:18 17:26 17:37 17:40 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:21 18:23 3 17:05 17:16 17:28 17:36 17:47 17:52 18:03 18:11 18:22 18:34 18:54 4 17:15 17:29 17:41 17:49 18:00 18:05 18:16 18:24 18:35 18:46 18:53 11 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 Adding a tenth bus results in a -minute cycle ( x ), which is achievable for the existing -minute headway. The goal is to keep the southbound headway as even as possible. In the spreadsheet, the leaving times of all trips which will need their running time adjusted are high- lighted. Running time periods with revised times southbound begin at : and extend to just before : . New northbound running times are needed beginning at : and extending un- til : . Choose the leaving times of these trips and highlight them in gray, as shown below. 3-51

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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building S C H E D U L E S H E E T w ith trip s ne e d ing ne w tim e s hig hlig hte d R o u te 96 IN E F F : S ep te m be r 15 , 200 7 M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y N O R TH B O UN D S O U TH B O UN D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 12 :5 3 13 :0 3 13 :1 3 13 :2 0 13 :2 9 13 :3 5 13 :4 5 13 :5 2 14 :0 3 14 :1 3 14 :2 3 13 :0 5 13 :1 8 13 :2 8 13 :3 5 13 :4 4 13 :5 0 14 :0 0 14 :0 7 14 :1 8 14 :2 9 14 :3 5 13 :2 3 13 :3 3 13 :4 3 13 :5 0 13 :5 9 14 :0 5 14 :1 5 14 :2 2 14 :3 3 14 :4 3 14 :5 3 13 :3 5 13 :4 8 13 :5 9 14 :0 6 14 :1 6 14 :2 0 14 :3 0 14 :3 7 14 :4 8 14 :5 9 15 :0 5 13 :5 3 14 :0 3 14 :1 4 14 :2 1 14 :3 1 14 :3 5 14 :4 5 14 :5 2 15 :0 3 15 :1 3 15 :2 3 14 :0 5 14 :1 8 14 :2 9 14 :3 6 14 :4 6 14 :5 0 15 :0 0 15 :0 7 15 :1 8 15 :2 9 15 :3 5 14 :2 3 14 :3 3 14 :4 4 14 :5 1 15 :0 1 15 :0 5 15 :1 5 15 :2 2 15 :3 3 15 :4 3 15 :4 8 14 :3 5 14 :4 8 14 :5 9 15 :0 6 15 :1 6 15 :2 0 15 :3 0 15 :3 7 15 :4 8 15 :5 9 16 :0 5 15 :2 3 15 :3 3 15 :4 3 15 :5 0 16 :0 1 16 :1 1 16 :1 5 14 :5 3 15 :0 3 15 :1 4 15 :2 1 15 :3 1 15 :4 5 15 :5 5 16 :0 2 16 :1 3 16 :2 4 16 :3 2 15 :0 5 15 :1 8 15 :2 9 15 :3 6 15 :4 6 15 :5 7 16 :0 7 16 :1 4 16 :2 5 16 :3 5 16 :4 5 15 :2 3 15 :3 3 15 :4 4 15 :5 1 16 :0 1 16 :0 9 16 :1 9 16 :2 6 16 :3 7 16 :4 8 16 :5 2 15 :3 5 15 :4 8 15 :5 9 16 :0 6 16 :1 6 16 :2 0 16 :3 1 16 :3 9 16 :5 0 17 :0 1 17 :0 5 15 :4 8 15 :5 8 16 :0 9 16 :1 6 16 :2 6 16 :3 0 16 :4 1 16 :4 9 17 :0 0 17 :1 2 17 :1 5 15 :5 3 16 :0 8 16 :1 9 16 :2 6 16 :3 6 16 :4 0 16 :5 1 16 :5 9 17 :1 0 17 :2 1 17 :2 8 16 :0 5 16 :1 8 16 :2 9 16 :3 6 16 :4 6 16 :5 0 17 :0 1 17 :0 9 17 :2 0 17 :3 2 17 :3 6 16 :1 5 16 :2 5 16 :3 6 16 :4 4 16 :5 5 17 :0 0 17 :1 1 17 :1 9 17 :3 0 17 :4 1 17 :5 3 16 :2 0 16 :3 5 16 :4 6 16 :5 4 17 :0 5 17 :1 0 17 :2 1 17 :2 9 17 :4 0 17 :5 2 18 :0 5 16 :3 2 16 :4 5 16 :5 6 17 :0 4 17 :1 5 17 :2 0 17 :3 1 17 :3 9 17 :5 0 18 :0 1 18 :2 1 16 :4 5 16 :5 5 17 :0 6 17 :1 4 17 :2 5 17 :3 0 17 :4 0 17 :4 8 17 :5 8 18 :1 0 18 :3 5 16 :5 2 17 :0 5 17 :1 6 17 :2 4 17 :3 5 17 :4 0 17 :5 0 17 :5 8 18 :0 8 18 :1 9 18 :2 3 17 :0 5 17 :1 5 17 :2 6 17 :3 4 17 :4 5 17 :5 2 18 :0 2 18 :1 0 18 :2 0 18 :3 2 18 :5 2 17 :1 5 17 :2 8 17 :3 9 17 :4 7 17 :5 8 18 :0 5 18 :1 5 18 :2 3 18 :3 3 18 :4 4 18 :5 3 17 :2 8 17 :3 8 17 :4 9 17 :5 7 18 :0 8 18 :1 8 17 :3 6 17 :4 9 17 :5 9 18 :0 6 18 :1 5 18 :2 0 18 :3 0 18 :3 8 18 :4 8 19 :0 0 19 :0 5 17 :5 3 18 :0 3 18 :1 3 18 :2 0 18 :2 9 18 :3 5 18 :4 5 18 :5 3 19 :0 3 19 :1 4 19 :2 3 18 :0 5 18 :1 8 18 :2 8 18 :3 5 18 :4 4 18 :5 0 18 :5 9 19 :0 6 19 :1 5 19 :2 6 19 :3 5 18 :2 3 18 :3 3 18 :4 3 18 :5 0 18 :5 9 19 :0 5 19 :1 4 19 :2 1 19 :3 0 19 :4 0 19 :5 3 18 :3 5 18 :4 8 18 :5 8 19 :0 5 19 :1 4 19 :2 5 19 :3 4 19 :4 1 19 :5 0 20 :0 1 20 :0 6 18 :5 3 19 :0 3 19 :1 3 19 :2 0 19 :2 9 19 :4 5 19 :5 4 20 :0 1 20 :1 0 20 :2 0 20 :2 8 19 :0 5 19 :1 8 19 :2 8 19 :3 5 19 :4 4 19 :5 4 19 :2 3 19 :3 3 19 :4 3 19 :5 0 19 :5 9 20 :0 5 20 :1 4 20 :2 1 20 :3 0 20 :4 1 20 :4 6 19 :3 5 19 :4 8 19 :5 8 20 :0 5 20 :1 4 20 :2 5 20 :3 4 20 :4 1 20 :5 0 21 :0 0 21 :0 8 19 :5 3 20 :0 3 20 :1 2 20 :1 9 20 :2 6 20 :3 6 20 :0 6 20 :1 8 20 :2 6 20 :3 2 20 :3 9 20 :4 5 20 :5 4 21 :0 1 21 :1 0 21 :2 1 21 :2 6 3-52

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Level . Advanced Schedule Building Chapter 3. Schedule Building Next, apply the new running times for these trips. Once the southbound trips are adjusted, do the same thing for the northbound direction. Northbound there is only one period that has changed, the : period, which encompasses trips leaving the two outer terminals after the : trip (at Libby) up to the : trip leaving Sand Point. The revised schedule reflecting new running times is shown below. Blocks are not shown; the advanced section of the Block- ing chapter will show how to reblock this schedule. The spreadsheet shows that there are now four pull-outs in the PM peak, compared to three on the previous schedule: this is the tenth bus required. Some layovers are tight, especially the : arrival at Rugby Circle, but this bus will pull in after its next southbound trip. S C H E D U L E S H E E T w ith ne w running tim e s R o u te 96 IN EF F : M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:14 14:23 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:30 14:35 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:44 14:53 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 15:00 15:05 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:14 15:23 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:30 15:35 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:44 15:48 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 16:00 16:05 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:23 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:56 16:04 16:15 16:28 16:30 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:08 16:16 16:27 16:39 16:43 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 17:13 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:08 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:42 16:51 17:03 17:16 17:35 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:52 17:01 17:13 17:25 17:28 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:02 17:11 17:23 17:36 17:56 16:13 16:28 16:39 16:46 16:56 17:00 17:12 17:21 17:33 17:45 17:53 16:23 16:34 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:22 17:31 17:43 17:56 18:05 16:30 16:44 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:32 17:41 17:53 18:05 18:23 16:43 16:54 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:41 17:49 18:00 18:12 18:35 16:20 16:50 17:04 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:21 18:41 17:08 17:19 17:31 17:39 17:50 17:52 18:03 18:11 18:22 18:34 18:54 17:13 17:27 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:16 18:24 18:35 18:46 18:53 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 17:35 17:48 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:31 18:39 18:50 19:02 19:05 3-53

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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building Now that running times have been adjusted, the next step is to reduce peak headways. Adding an additional trip would again bring layover below acceptable levels. Thus, the expectation is that an eleventh bus will be needed to supply the additional southbound trip. First, add the new PM southbound trips originally sketched into the schedule. It then becomes obvious that the northbound trips will also have to be adjusted to make the new schedule work and all the trips in the PM peak and after will have to be reblocked. Portions of the schedule with headway adjustments are highlighted in dark gray, while added southbound trips are highlighted in light gray. S C H E D U L E S H E E T w ith ne w runn ing tim e s an d re vis e d s o uthb o un d he ad w ays R o u te 96 IN EFF : M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 12 : 5 3 13 : 0 3 13 : 1 3 13 : 2 0 13 : 2 9 13 : 3 5 13 : 4 5 13 : 5 2 14 : 0 3 14 : 1 4 14 : 2 3 13 : 0 5 13 : 1 8 13 : 2 8 13 : 3 5 13 : 4 4 13 : 5 0 14 : 0 0 14 : 0 7 14 : 1 8 14 : 3 0 14 : 3 5 13 : 2 3 13 : 3 3 13 : 4 3 13 : 5 0 13 : 5 9 14 : 0 5 14 : 1 5 14 : 2 2 14 : 3 3 14 : 4 4 14 : 5 3 13 : 3 5 13 : 4 8 13 : 5 9 14 : 0 6 14 : 1 6 14 : 2 0 14 : 3 0 14 : 3 7 14 : 4 8 15 : 0 0 15 : 0 5 13 : 5 3 14 : 0 3 14 : 1 4 14 : 2 1 14 : 3 1 14 : 3 5 14 : 4 5 14 : 5 2 15 : 0 3 15 : 1 4 15 : 2 3 14 : 0 5 14 : 1 8 14 : 2 9 14 : 3 6 14 : 4 6 14 : 5 0 15 : 0 0 15 : 0 7 15 : 1 8 15 : 3 0 15 : 3 5 14 : 2 3 14 : 3 3 14 : 4 4 14 : 5 1 15 : 0 1 15 : 0 5 15 : 1 5 15 : 2 2 15 : 3 3 15 : 4 4 15 : 4 8 14 : 3 5 14 : 4 8 14 : 5 9 15 : 0 6 15 : 1 6 15 : 2 0 15 : 3 0 15 : 3 7 15 : 4 8 16 : 0 0 16 : 0 5 15 : 2 3 15 : 3 3 15 : 4 4 15 : 5 2 16 : 0 3 16 : 1 5 16 : 2 3 14 : 5 3 15 : 0 3 15 : 1 4 15 : 2 1 15 : 3 1 15 : 4 5 15 : 5 6 16 : 0 4 16 : 1 5 16 : 2 8 16 : 3 0 15 : 0 5 15 : 1 8 15 : 2 9 15 : 3 6 15 : 4 6 15 : 5 7 16 : 0 8 16 : 1 6 16 : 2 7 16 : 3 9 16 : 4 3 15 : 2 3 15 : 3 3 15 : 4 4 15 : 5 1 16 : 0 1 16 : 0 9 16 : 2 0 16 : 2 8 16 : 3 9 16 : 5 2 16 : 5 5 15 : 3 5 15 : 4 8 15 : 5 9 16 : 0 6 16 : 1 6 16 : 2 0 16 : 3 2 16 : 4 1 16 : 5 3 17 : 0 5 17 : 0 8 15 : 4 8 15 : 5 8 16 : 0 9 16 : 1 6 16 : 2 6 16 : 2 9 16 : 4 1 16 : 5 0 17 : 0 2 17 : 1 5 17 : 1 7 15 : 5 3 16 : 0 8 16 : 1 9 16 : 2 6 16 : 3 6 16 : 3 7 16 : 4 9 16 : 5 8 17 : 1 0 17 : 2 2 17 : 2 8 16 : 0 5 16 : 1 8 16 : 2 9 16 : 3 6 16 : 4 6 16 : 4 5 16 : 5 7 17 : 0 6 17 : 1 8 17 : 3 1 16 : 1 3 16 : 2 8 16 : 3 9 16 : 4 6 16 : 5 6 16 : 5 3 17 : 0 5 17 : 1 4 17 : 2 6 17 : 3 9 17 : 5 9 16 : 2 3 16 : 3 4 16 : 4 6 16 : 5 4 17 : 0 5 17 : 0 1 17 : 1 3 17 : 2 2 17 : 3 4 17 : 4 6 17 : 5 3 16 : 3 0 16 : 4 4 16 : 5 6 17 : 0 4 17 : 1 5 17 : 0 9 17 : 2 1 17 : 3 0 17 : 4 2 17 : 5 5 18 : 0 5 16 : 4 3 16 : 5 4 17 : 0 6 17 : 1 4 17 : 2 5 17 : 1 7 17 : 2 9 17 : 3 8 17 : 5 0 18 : 0 2 18 : 2 3 16 : 2 0 16 : 5 0 17 : 0 4 17 : 1 6 17 : 2 4 17 : 3 5 17 : 2 5 17 : 3 7 17 : 4 6 17 : 5 8 18 : 1 0 17 : 0 8 17 : 1 9 17 : 3 1 17 : 3 9 17 : 5 0 17 : 3 5 17 : 4 6 17 : 5 4 18 : 0 5 18 : 1 7 18 : 3 5 17 : 1 3 17 : 2 7 17 : 3 9 17 : 4 7 17 : 5 8 17 : 4 5 17 : 5 6 18 : 0 4 18 : 1 5 18 : 2 6 18 : 4 6 17 : 2 8 17 : 3 9 17 : 5 1 17 : 5 9 18 : 1 0 17 : 5 5 18 : 0 6 18 : 1 4 18 : 2 5 18 : 3 7 18 : 5 7 17 : 3 5 17 : 4 8 17 : 5 9 18 : 0 6 18 : 1 5 18 : 2 0 17 : 5 3 18 : 0 3 18 : 1 3 18 : 2 0 18 : 2 9 18 : 0 7 18 : 1 8 18 : 2 6 18 : 3 7 18 : 4 8 18 : 5 3 18 : 0 5 18 : 1 8 18 : 2 8 18 : 3 5 18 : 4 4 18 : 2 0 18 : 3 1 18 : 3 9 18 : 5 0 19 : 0 2 19 : 0 5 3-54

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Level . Advanced Schedule Building Chapter 3. Schedule Building When adding rows or One goal in adding trips was to keep the times at the MLP (Pasco & Havre) to those identified Tip columns to a schedule earlier, while working toward an "evenness" in the trip leaving times from Rugby Circle. Even- in a spreadsheet, add only the ness means a normal progression of headway narrowing and then widening as times approach cells needed and shift the other the trips that are not being changed. A comparison of current and proposed trip leaving times cells down. Adding whole rows can for the period of change is shown below. disturb other information on the spreadsheet, such as the running Lvg. Rugby Cir. time table area. 16:09 16:09 16:20 16:20 16:30 16:29 16:40 16:37 16:45 16:50 16:53 17:00 17:01 17:10 17:09 17:20 17:17 17:25 17:30 17:35 17:40 17:45 17:52 17:55 18:05 18:07 18:20 18:20 The headway progression is smooth and puts the additional trip where it is needed. Note that two trips have actually been added in order to carry the headway back to the original schedule at : . This has an advantage later on in reblocking the schedule. If only one trip is added to a two-branch route, the trips throughout the remainder of the day would be reversed to each branch. Now the running time has been adjusted in both directions, and new southbound trips have been added. Study your progress so far. In two cases, two consecutive trips serve the same outer terminal (the : and : trips and the : and : trips). The solution is to "flip" the terminals until we reach the second added trip, after which the trips again fall to their pre- vious end points. This is shown below, with flipped trips highlighted in dark gray. 3-55

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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building S C H E D U L E S H E E T w ith ne w runn ing tim e s an d "f lip p e d " s o uthb o un d trip s R o u te 96 IN EFF : M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 12 :53 13 :03 13 :13 13 :20 13 :29 13 :35 13 :45 13 :52 14 :03 14 :14 14 :23 13 :05 13 :18 13 :28 13 :35 13 :44 13 :50 14 :00 14 :07 14 :18 14 :30 14 :35 13 :23 13 :33 13 :43 13 :50 13 :59 14 :05 14 :15 14 :22 14 :33 14 :44 14 :53 13 :35 13 :48 13 :59 14 :06 14 :16 14 :20 14 :30 14 :37 14 :48 15 :00 15 :05 13 :53 14 :03 14 :14 14 :21 14 :31 14 :35 14 :45 14 :52 15 :03 15 :14 15 :23 14 :05 14 :18 14 :29 14 :36 14 :46 14 :50 15 :00 15 :07 15 :18 15 :30 15 :35 14 :23 14 :33 14 :44 14 :51 15 :01 15 :05 15 :15 15 :22 15 :33 15 :44 15 :48 14 :35 14 :48 14 :59 15 :06 15 :16 15 :20 15 :30 15 :37 15 :48 16 :00 16 :05 15 :23 15 :33 15 :44 15 :52 16 :03 16 :15 16 :23 14 :53 15 :03 15 :14 15 :21 15 :31 15 :45 15 :56 16 :04 16 :15 16 :28 16 :30 15 :05 15 :18 15 :29 15 :36 15 :46 15 :57 16 :08 16 :16 16 :27 16 :39 16 :43 15 :23 15 :33 15 :44 15 :51 16 :01 16 :09 16 :20 16 :28 16 :39 16 :52 16 :55 15 :35 15 :48 15 :59 16 :06 16 :16 16 :20 16 :32 16 :41 16 :53 17 :05 17 :08 15 :48 15 :58 16 :09 16 :16 16 :26 16 :29 16 :41 16 :50 17 :02 17 :15 17 :17 15 :53 16 :08 16 :19 16 :26 16 :36 16 :37 16 :49 16 :58 17 :10 17 :22 17 :28 16 :05 16 :18 16 :29 16 :36 16 :46 16 :45 16 :57 17 :06 17 :18 17 :31 16 :13 16 :28 16 :39 16 :46 16 :56 16 :53 17 :05 17 :14 17 :26 17 :38 17 :59 16 :23 16 :34 16 :46 16 :54 17 :05 17 :01 17 :13 17 :22 17 :34 17 :47 17 :53 16 :30 16 :44 16 :56 17 :04 17 :15 17 :09 17 :21 17 :30 17 :42 17 :54 18 :05 16 :43 16 :54 17 :06 17 :14 17 :25 17 :17 17 :29 17 :38 17 :50 18 :03 18 :23 16 :20 16 :50 17 :04 17 :16 17 :24 17 :35 17 :25 17 :37 17 :46 17 :58 18 :10 17 :08 17 :19 17 :31 17 :39 17 :50 17 :35 17 :46 17 :54 18 :05 18 :17 18 :35 17 :13 17 :27 17 :39 17 :47 17 :58 17 :45 17 :56 18 :04 18 :15 18 :26 18 :46 17 :28 17 :39 17 :51 17 :59 18 :10 17 :55 18 :06 18 :14 18 :25 18 :37 18 :57 17 :35 17 :48 17 :59 18 :06 18 :15 18 :20 17 :53 18 :03 18 :13 18 :20 18 :29 18 :07 18 :18 18 :26 18 :37 18 :48 18 :53 18 :05 18 :18 18 :28 18 :35 18 :44 18 :20 18 :31 18 :39 18 :50 19 :02 19 :05 3-56

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Level . Advanced Schedule Building Chapter 3. Schedule Building When adding trips on The final step in our schedule adjustment is to add in northbound trips corresponding to the Tip a route with branches, southbound trips already added. Results are shown below, with changed trips highlighted in avoid unintended effects in other gray. There are now five PM pullouts, reflecting the addition of the eleventh bus. time periods. Night service to each branch might be timed to meet the S C HE D UL E S HE ET with ad jus te d running tim e and he ad ways closing time at a shopping center, or riders might simply have learned R o u te 96 IN EF F : to depend on specific trip times M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y when headways are at their widest. N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D The ideal solution when working on OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN a two-branch route is to add two GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. trips. 12 :5 3 13 :0 3 13 :1 3 13 :2 0 13 :2 9 13 :3 5 13 :4 5 13 :5 2 14 :0 3 14 :1 4 14 :2 3 13 :0 5 13 :1 8 13 :2 8 13 :3 5 13 :4 4 13 :5 0 14 :0 0 14 :0 7 14 :1 8 14 :3 0 14 :3 5 13 :2 3 13 :3 3 13 :4 3 13 :5 0 13 :5 9 14 :0 5 14 :1 5 14 :2 2 14 :3 3 14 :4 4 14 :5 3 13 :3 5 13 :4 8 13 :5 9 14 :0 6 14 :1 6 14 :2 0 14 :3 0 14 :3 7 14 :4 8 15 :0 0 15 :0 5 13 :5 3 14 :0 3 14 :1 4 14 :2 1 14 :3 1 14 :3 5 14 :4 5 14 :5 2 15 :0 3 15 :1 4 15 :2 3 14 :0 5 14 :1 8 14 :2 9 14 :3 6 14 :4 6 14 :5 0 15 :0 0 15 :0 7 15 :1 8 15 :3 0 15 :3 5 14 :2 3 14 :3 3 14 :4 4 14 :5 1 15 :0 1 15 :0 5 15 :1 5 15 :2 2 15 :3 3 15 :4 4 15 :4 8 14 :3 5 14 :4 8 14 :5 9 15 :0 6 15 :1 6 15 :2 0 15 :3 0 15 :3 7 15 :4 8 16 :0 0 16 :0 5 15 :2 3 15 :3 3 15 :4 4 15 :5 2 16 :0 3 16 :1 5 16 :2 3 14 :5 3 15 :0 3 15 :1 4 15 :2 1 15 :3 1 15 :4 5 15 :5 6 16 :0 4 16 :1 5 16 :2 8 16 :3 0 15 :0 5 15 :1 8 15 :2 9 15 :3 6 15 :4 6 15 :5 7 16 :0 8 16 :1 6 16 :2 7 16 :3 9 16 :4 1 15 :2 3 15 :3 3 15 :4 4 15 :5 1 16 :0 1 16 :0 9 16 :2 0 16 :2 8 16 :3 9 16 :5 2 16 :5 5 15 :3 5 15 :4 8 15 :5 9 16 :0 6 16 :1 6 16 :2 0 16 :3 2 16 :4 1 16 :5 3 17 :0 5 17 :0 8 16 :1 9 16 :2 9 16 :4 1 16 :5 0 17 :0 2 17 :1 5 17 :1 7 15 :4 8 15 :5 8 16 :0 9 16 :1 6 16 :2 6 16 :3 7 16 :4 9 16 :5 8 17 :1 0 17 :2 2 17 :2 8 15 :5 3 16 :0 8 16 :1 9 16 :2 6 16 :3 6 16 :4 5 16 :5 7 17 :0 6 17 :1 8 17 :3 1 17 :4 0 16 :0 5 16 :1 8 16 :2 9 16 :3 6 16 :4 6 16 :5 3 17 :0 5 17 :1 4 17 :2 6 17 :3 8 17 :5 3 16 :1 1 16 :2 6 16 :3 8 16 :4 6 16 :5 7 17 :0 1 17 :1 3 17 :2 2 17 :3 4 17 :4 7 18 :0 7 16 :2 3 16 :3 4 16 :4 6 16 :5 4 17 :0 5 17 :0 9 17 :2 1 17 :3 0 17 :4 2 17 :5 4 18 :1 4 16 :3 0 16 :4 4 16 :5 6 17 :0 4 17 :1 5 17 :1 7 17 :2 9 17 :3 8 17 :5 0 18 :0 3 18 :0 5 16 :4 1 16 :5 2 17 :0 4 17 :1 2 17 :2 3 17 :2 5 17 :3 7 17 :4 6 17 :5 8 18 :1 0 18 :2 3 16 :4 5 17 :0 0 17 :1 2 17 :2 0 17 :3 1 17 :3 5 17 :4 6 17 :5 4 18 :0 5 18 :1 7 18 :3 5 16 :5 5 17 :0 9 17 :2 1 17 :2 9 17 :4 0 17 :4 5 17 :5 6 18 :0 4 18 :1 5 18 :2 6 18 :4 6 17 :0 8 17 :1 9 17 :3 1 17 :3 9 17 :5 0 17 :5 5 18 :0 6 18 :1 4 18 :2 5 18 :3 7 18 :5 7 17 :1 7 17 :3 1 17 :4 3 17 :5 1 18 :0 2 18 :0 7 18 :1 8 18 :2 6 18 :3 7 18 :4 8 18 :5 3 17 :2 8 17 :3 9 17 :5 1 17 :5 9 18 :1 0 18 :2 0 18 :3 1 18 :3 9 18 :5 0 19 :0 2 19 :0 5 17 :4 0 17 :5 3 18 :0 3 18 :1 0 18 :1 9 18 :2 9 3-57

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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building This schedule provides an eight-minute headway for about minutes in the peak of the peak The addition of peak Tip period. Note that with an eleventh bus, the cycle calculates to minutes ( x buses). But buses is not a trivial our adjusted round trip running time is minutes! The reason that this schedule works is that matter at any system. Because of the eight-minute headway is in place for only about half the peak round trip cycle. Some buses budget constraints, on most sys- will not be making a full cycle during the time when the headways are tightest and running tems, the addition of a peak bus on time longest and therefore will not require the full minutes allocated to a round-trip. It is one route might require that the bus always smart to draft a revised schedule and not to rely solely on the cycle calculation. be taken from another route, so that the overall system does not have a There are some tight layover situations at both ends of the route. Usually, no bus faces tight net increase. In many cases, transit layover twice, with the exception of the southbound trip leaving Rugby Circle at : . It gets systems experience unbalanced just two minutes at Sand Point and then only two minutes on arrival at Rugby Circle at : . peaks, requiring more buses in one In most other cases, a minimum layover is followed by a more generous layover time at the peak than the other. If our sample other end. Some systems' layover rules might not allow this, but on many properties, minimum system has its highest bus count layover is specifically allowed during peak times. in the AM peak, then adding a PM peak bus is not as difficult, even Note also that the northbound headways are not uniform. The : trip departing Wishram though there will be a cost conse- provides a -minute headway further up the line in a period where other buses are running quence for the additional hours. minutes apart. This two-minute delay to the departure was done in order to allow enough The true scheduling practitioner layover for the trip arriving Wishram at : to be able to hook to it. simply does not part with another bus unless all other alternatives The trip adjustments also show up in less than ideal leaving times from the outer terminals, have been exhausted. particularly Sand Point. Leaving times would be more uniform if the : Sand Point depar- ture could be moved to the next earlier trip, which would have it leave at : . This earlier trip is a pull-out at : , which fits into the route at Pasco & Essex, just as other pull-outs to that point have been scheduled. To make the earlier trip the Sand Point trip presents logisti- cal problems, specifically what to do with the bus that arrives at Sand Point at : . Sending the bus out with zero layover is not an option. And if the : departure is scheduled using the pull-out, another Sand Point departure would be needed to have something for the : arrival to hook up with. The : departure could be left alone, but this trip would be a waste, scheduled just eight minutes after the previous departure. In addition, the scheduled pull-out at : would have to leave from the garage at about : , adding another minutes to the platform time of the schedule. A good scheduler always weighs these adjustments to see which one would provide the greatest service at the least cost. In this case, the swapping of trips is considered unnecessary in view of what would be gained, and the northbound schedule is not changed. Undoubtedly there are other minor ways the northbound trip grid could have been adjusted to achieve a similar result, but the one shown does the job. It provides sufficient running time, a 3-58

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Level . Advanced Schedule Building Chapter 3. Schedule Building reasonably even headway and distribution of trips from the end terminals, and two new south- bound trips, all for the two additional buses. Now that the trips are in place, the next steps are to make sure that every trip hooks properly and then begin the process of reblocking, starting at the beginning of the PM pull-outs. These steps will be addressed in the advanced section of Chapter . A sneak preview: there is enough of a change that no block finishes its day the same as it did in the original schedule. The chang- es will add two peak buses, as we noted here, and about four platform hours. The final sched- ule is shown below. S C H E D U L E S H E E T w ith ad jus te d running tim e and he ad w ays R o u te 96 IN EF F : M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y P art 1 N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 5 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 1 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 6 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 3 4:05 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 7 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 5 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 1 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 6 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 3 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 7 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 8 5:55 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 4 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 5 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 8:46 1 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 6 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 10 6:55 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 9:17 2 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 3 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 7 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9:46 8 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 9:57 4 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 5 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:32 9:40 9:50 10:01 10:05 6 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 1 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 2 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 3 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 4 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 5 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 6 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 1 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 2 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 3 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 4 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 5 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 6 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 1 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 2 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 3 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 4 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:14 14:23 5 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:30 14:35 6 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:44 14:53 1 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 15:00 15:05 3-59

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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building S C H E D U L E S H E E T w ith ad jus te d running tim e and he ad w ays R o u te 96 IN EF F : M O N D A Y T H R U F R ID A Y P art 2 N O R TH B O U N D S O U TH B O U N D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm GAR LVE. 2 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:14 15:23 3 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:30 15:35 4 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:44 15:48 5 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 16:00 16:05 15 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:23 6 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:56 16:04 16:15 16:28 16:30 1 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:08 16:16 16:27 16:39 16:41 2 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 16:55 3 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:08 12 16:19 16:29 16:41 16:50 17:02 17:15 17:17 4 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:37 16:49 16:58 17:10 17:22 17:28 13 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:45 16:57 17:06 17:18 17:31 17:40 5 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:53 17:05 17:14 17:26 17:38 17:53 14 16:11 16:26 16:38 16:46 16:57 17:01 17:13 17:22 17:34 17:47 18:07 15 16:23 16:34 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:09 17:21 17:30 17:42 17:54 18:14 6 16:30 16:44 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:17 17:29 17:38 17:50 18:03 18:05 1 16:41 16:52 17:04 17:12 17:23 17:25 17:37 17:46 17:58 18:10 18:23 11 16:45 17:00 17:12 17:20 17:31 17:35 17:46 17:54 18:05 18:17 18:35 2 16:55 17:09 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:45 17:56 18:04 18:15 18:26 18:46 3 17:08 17:19 17:31 17:39 17:50 17:55 18:06 18:14 18:25 18:37 18:57 12 17:17 17:31 17:43 17:51 18:02 18:07 18:18 18:26 18:37 18:48 18:53 4 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 18:31 18:39 18:50 19:02 19:05 13 17:40 17:53 18:03 18:10 18:19 18:29 5 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:46 18:54 19:05 19:16 19:23 6 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:16 19:27 19:35 1 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:31 19:41 19:53 11 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:51 20:02 20:06 12 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:11 20:21 20:28 4 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 19:54 5 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:31 20:42 20:46 6 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:51 21:01 21:08 1 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 20:36 11 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:11 21:22 21:26 12 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:14 21:21 21:31 21:41 21:48 5 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:34 21:41 21:51 22:02 22:06 6 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:54 22:01 22:11 22:21 22:28 11 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:14 22:21 22:31 22:42 22:46 12 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:34 22:41 22:51 23:01 23:08 5 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:54 23:01 23:11 23:22 23:26 6 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:14 23:21 23:31 23:41 23:48 11 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:34 23:41 23:51 0:02 0:06 12 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 23:49 5 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:14 0:21 0:31 0:42 1:02 6 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 0:29 11 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 0:49 3-60

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Level . Advanced Schedule Building Chapter 3. Schedule Building To summarize this section: we took the information from the traffic checks and made a real world example schedule change that incorporated both increased running time and the need for an additional trip. We did it in the least intrusive way, disturbing the riding habits of the patrons of this route to the least extent possible. Our "good scheduler" mentality is partially satisfied with this while the other part wants to go back and see if this adjustment can be done with the addition of only one bus. But remember that preliminary analysis showed the round trip cycle would have been impossibly tight--even more so than in the final schedule. 3-61

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Chapter 3. Schedule Building Level . Advanced Schedule Building LEVEL End of Advanced Schedule Building, Part A 3A Advanced Schedule Building, Part B continues on the next page. To jump to Schedule Blocking, go to page - . 3-62