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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 135 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Robert I. Brownstein, AECOM Consult, Inc. VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington MEMBERS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Ann August, Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority MEMBERS EX OFFICIO MEMBERS John Bartosiewicz, McDonald Transit Associates J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, Michael Blaylock, Jacksonville Transportation Authority River City, Louisville, KY U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Linda J. Bohlinger, HNTB Corp. Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American a Raul Bravo, Raul V. Bravo & Associates Harrisburg Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Gregory Cook, Veolia Transportation Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Terry Garcia Crews, StarTran DOT, Jackson Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Nathaniel P. Ford, Jr., SF Municipal Transportation Agency Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Kim R. Green, GFI GENFARE and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Jill A. Hough, North Dakota State University William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Angela Iannuzziello, ENTRA Consultants Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT John Inglish, Utah Transit Authority David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Jeanne W. Krieg, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety David A. Lee, Connecticut Transit Department of Civil Engineering, University of Administration, U.S.DOT Clarence W. Marsella, Denver Regional Transportation District Virginia, Charlottesville LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau Gary W. McNeil, GO Transit Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Michael P. Melaniphy, Motor Coach Industries Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Washington, DC Frank Otero, PACO Technologies Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association Keith Parker, Charlotte Area Transit System Air Policy, Washington, DC of American Railroads, Washington, DC Jeffrey Rosenberg, Amalgamated Transit Union Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Michael Scanlon, San Mateo County Transit District Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Association of State Highway and Transportation Beverly Scott, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Officials, Washington, DC James S. Simpson, FTA Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal James Stem, United Transportation Union Highway Administration, Baltimore Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Frank Tobey, First Transit Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS of Arizona, Tucson William W. Millar, President, American Public William W. Millar, APTA Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal- Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert E. Skinner, Jr., TRB Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Lynne A. Osmus, Acting Administrator, Federal John C. Horsley, AASHTO Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Aviation Administr Jeffrey F. Paniati, FHWA Steve T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Louis Sanders, APTA Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial SECRETARY Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Christopher W. Jenks, TRB Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR *Membership as of February 2009. *Membership as of February 2009.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 135 Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling Daniel Boyle DAN B OYLE & ASSOCIATES, INC. San Diego, CA John Pappas JOHN E. PAPPAS TRANSIT CONSULTANT Brooklyn, NY Phillip Boyle PHILLIP B OYLE & ASSOCIATES Melbourne, Australia Bonnie Nelson NELSON/NYGAARD CONSULTING ASSOCIATES San Francisco, CA David Sharfarz NELSON/NYGAARD CONSULTING ASSOCIATES Boston, MA Howard Benn Silver Spring, MD Subject Areas Public Transit Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation T R A N S P O R TAT I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 135 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place Project A-29 demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, ISSN 1073-4872 must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. ISBN 978-0-309-11783-8 Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other Library of Congress Control Number 2009928289 industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research 2009 Transportation Research Board Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop inno- vative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. COPYRIGHT PERMISSION The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public copyrighted material used herein. Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, administrative practices. request permission from CRP. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Trans- NOTICE portation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was exe- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National cuted by the three cooperating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Trans- Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is portation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the inde- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report pendent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the funding levels and expected products. U.S. Department of Transportation. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures Board. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research Governing Board of the National Research Council. problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Transit research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily with- Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear out compensation. herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, spe- cial emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- Published reports of the sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for are available from: workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. Transportation Research Board Business Office The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational 500 Fifth Street, NW problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training Washington, DC 20001 programs. and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 135 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor TCRP PROJECT A-29 PANEL Field of Operations John F. Potts, DMP Group, New Orleans, LA (Chair) Fabian Cevallos, Florida International University, Miami, FL H. James Froehlich, Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI Arthur N. Gaudet, Arthur N. Gaudet & Associates, Carrolton, TX Michael Glikin, Metropolitan Transportation Authority--New York City Transit, New York, NY Barbara MacDonald, Veolia Transportation, Las Vegas, NV Steven F. Ponte, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA Dave Rynerson, New Jersey Transit Corporation, Newark, NJ Steven Silkunas, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, Philadelphia, PA Venkat Pindiprolu, FTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This manual was prepared under TCRP Project A-29 by Dan Boyle & Associates, Inc. (prime contractor for the study), John E. Pappas Transit Consultant, Phillip Boyle & Associates, Nelson/Nygaard Consulting Associates, and Howard Benn. Daniel Boyle, President of Dan Boyle & Associates, Inc., was the principal investigator with overall responsibility for the project and the pri- mary author of the blocking and rostering chapters. John Pappas was the primary author for the chapters on schedule writing and rail sched- uling. Phillip Boyle wrote the runcutting chapter and authored several of the advanced topic discussions. All team members freely edited each other's work throughout the project; Bonnie Nelson of Nelson/Nygaard did the final edit. Howard Benn served as senior advisor and was the final arbiter for technical disputes among the team. Mr. Benn also contributed the sections on overtime optimization and rail terminal layout. Daniel Boyle, John Pappas, Phillip Boyle, and David Sharfarz (Nelson/Nygaard Consulting Associates) conducted the background case stud- ies. David Jorns of Nelson/Nygaard designed and produced the final document for TCRP. Dan Boyle & Associates, Inc., is grateful to all the transit agencies who responded to the lengthy survey on transit scheduling. The team espe- cially thanks the schedulers and others at the 12 case study agencies for providing detailed information on their scheduling practices. We grate- fully acknowledge the guidance of the A-29 project panel and the guidance and assistance provided by Gwen Chisholm Smith of TCRP throughout the project.

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FOREWORD By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 135: Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling is an update to TCRP Report 30: Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals and addresses contemporary issues in transit scheduling. TCRP Report 135 provides information on available scheduling tools and techniques and their capabilities. Also, the report provides guidance to transit agencies on a variety of scheduling issues typically faced in a tran- sit operating environment. The results of this research may be used by new or experienced schedulers, planners, operating managers, and chief executive officers. TCRP Report 30: Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals was published in 1998. This was the first documenta- tion of transit scheduling practices since the American Transit Association (APTA's predecessor) published the Manual of Transit Scheduling in 1947. Although TCRP Report 30 documented the state of the practice in 1998, there have been considerable changes in ser- vice design and scheduling practices since then. Specifically, transit agencies have increasingly turned to computer- assisted scheduling methods. Computer-assisted scheduling has the capability of refining operating schedules and work assignments to generate a highly cost-effective set of operator and vehicle assignments. This report provides updated guidance for transit-scheduling activities. To assist in the development of TCRP Report 135, the research team conducted case studies to document, evaluate, and compare the merits of each type of work assignment used by small, medium, and large transit systems. The case studies include the pros and cons of using each assignment methodology. In TCRP Report 135, the research team updates the basic and advanced sections of TCRP Report 30 and includes a glos- sary that defines terminology and identifies common synonyms. TCRP Report 135 addresses scheduling issues related to (a) service running times, (b) service recovery, (c) meal and rest breaks, (d) optimization of transfers, (e) clockface or mem-

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ory headways, (f) through routing, (g) interlining, (h) headway-interval scheduling, (i) skip-stop and limited-stop opera- tions, (j) long-route operating assessment, (k) part-time operators, (l) alternative work-week structure, (m) application of service level standards, (n) data integration, and (o) operator relief techniques and relative costs. Finally, TCRP Report 135 discusses computerized scheduling system implementation issues.

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CONTENTS S-1 Summary 1-1 Chapter 1. Introduction to the Transit Scheduling Manual 2-1 Chapter 2. Inputs to the Scheduling Process 3-1 Chapter 3. Schedule Building 4-1 Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 5-1 Chapter 5. Runcutting 6-1 Chapter 6. Rostering 7-1 Chapter 7. Rail Scheduling G-1 Glossary