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Communication Matters Communicating the Value of Transportation Research Guidebook NCHRP REPORT 610 National Cooperative Highway Research Program Consultants Johanna P. Zmud, NuStats LLC Julie L. Paasche, NuStats LLC Mia Zmud, NuStats LLC Timothy J. Lomax, Texas Transportation Institute Joseph Schofer, Northwestern University Judy Meyer, Public Information Associates Subject Areas Planning and Administration Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. www.trb.org 2009

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 610 RESEARCH PROGRAM Project 20-78 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective ISSN 0077-5614 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11764-7 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008911002 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing Transportation. the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this NOTICE purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of resources of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and research directly to those who are in a position to use them. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these Department of Transportation. needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National The needs for highway research are many, and the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other they are considered essential to the object of this report. highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America