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12 TABLE 10 ENFORCEMENT MEASURES General Enforcement Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-primary Aviation Suspend or Revoke 7 13 16 21 5 9 Levy a Fine 3 5 6 11 0 6 Graduated Penalty 1 6 3 6 0 2 Remedial Training 7 13 15 20 1 7 Other 5 7 11 9 1 3 No Enforcement 0 0 0 0 0 1 enforcing county codes. Fully 71 responders or 91% can sus- than 1 driving incident of noncompliance within a week's pend or revoke the driving privileges on an airport. Although time frame. 31 responding airport operators or 41% indicated that they can levy a fine, only 18 (24%) maintained a graduated penalty system. Sixty-three airport operators reported that they require SECTION 2. NON-MOVEMENT AREA REQUIREMENTS remedial driver training in case of violations of rules and regulations or in the case of a runway incursion (see Table 10). Based on one of the choices in Question 5, 11 of the 76 respond- ing airport operators do not have driver training requirements Who is responsible for enforcing the airport's rules and reg- for non-movement areas. This includes one large hub primary ulations varies from airport to airport. In some cases, airports do airport, two non-hub primary airports, one non-primary com- not have police forces of their own and, therefore, rely on local mercial service, and seven general aviation airports. However, police agencies to enforce the rules and regulations. In some at the large hub primary airport, according to a representative cases, the rules and regulations are not enforceable in munici- from that airport, the air carriers, as well as the FBOs, have pal courts. In the majority of situations, airport operations per- training programs for their personnel that include many of the sonnel are tasked with enforcement responsibilities along with driving requirements that are usually in an airport operator's the airport police. Several airports also employ dedicated ramp driving program. safety personnel who are tasked with, among other responsibil- ities, enforcement. Several airports, across the spectrum, use all Sixty airport operators differentiate training requirements three organizations (airport police, operations personnel, and between the movement and the non-movement areas. Table 11 dedicated ramp safety personnel) for enforcement purposes. shows the breakdown of these airports. Twelve airport oper- ators responded that they do not differentiate between the Vehicular rules and regulations on an airport are impor- training requirements. tant owing to the nature of the airfield with taxiing aircraft, cargo containers, baggage containers, trucks of all different Of those airports that have non-movement area driver sizes and shapes, conveyor belts, etc. One large hub primary training programs, 13 do not issue any type of non-movement airport admitted to 11 or more driving incidents of non- area driving permits. The remaining 51 airports issue a ramp compliance with the airport's rules and regulations during drivers permit (11 responders) and 36 have some sort of nota- a one-week time period. Five airport operators (two large hub tion on the airport ID or color code the ID to indicate driving primary, two medium hub primary, and one small hub pri- privileges or a combination of the two. mary) responded that they get anywhere from 6 to 10 non- compliance incidents a week. Fifty-nine reported only 1 to 5 noncompliance incidents a week (5 large hub, 11 medium Auditing Tenant Programs hub, 14 small hub, 18 non-hub primary, 2 non-primary com- mercial service, and 9 general aviation). Four non-primary There are some airport operators who have opted to have the air commercial service airports indicated that they receive less carriers, FBOs, and other tenants perform the non-movement TABLE 11 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-MOVEMENT AREA AND MOVEMENT AREA Differentiates Between Non-Movement and Medium General Movement Areas Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-primary Aviation Yes 8 12 15 14 3 8 No 0 1 1 6 2 2

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13 area driver training. There were 66 responses to the ques- Forty-two airports that responded to the survey question tion dealing with who does the initial driver training for on what constituted the driver training program for the non- non-movement areas. Nineteen airports (two large hub, two movement area required the employees to take a written test medium hub, three small hub, six non-hub, two non-primary for the non-movement area. Of the 19 airports that allowed commercial service, and four general aviation airports) indi- tenants and air carriers to train their own employees, 5 admin- cated that they allow others to perform this type of train- istered a written exam to the students, whereas 11 allowed ing. Approximately 63% (12 airport operators) of those that the tenant or air carrier to administer the written test. Two air- allowed other organizations to perform the training periodi- port operators indicated that no test was given to the students cally monitored and reviewed the training that was being pro- and one airport operator did not answer the question. vided. This 63% consist of two medium hub, three small hub, five non-hub, one non-primary commercial service, and one Additionally, there were five airports that also require a general aviation airport. The two large hub primary airports driving test that the employee had to pass before being able that allow tenants to perform the training neither periodically to receive a permit to drive on the non-movement area. No monitored nor reviewed the training taking place. large hub primary airport required a driving test for the non- movement area. In some cases (5), the airport operator used One of the questions in the survey asked how often the air- oral exams to qualify employees for driving privileges. port operator monitored or audited the tenant's or air carrier's driver training program. Nine of the 12 airport operators mon- For the 35 airports that used classroom instruction, the itored the program at least annually. One indicated that it length of the initial training generally lasted somewhere monitors the program every two years, whereas one non-hub between 30 minutes and 2 hours. The length for most air- primary does this every 6 months. The 12th airport operator, ports was one hour. However, there is a commercial service a non-primary commercial service airport, indicated "other" airport that has an 8-hour program for non-movement area on the survey. driver training. The following subjects were covered in the non-movement Non-Movement Area Driver Training area training: Airport rules and regulations, speed limits, the meaning of airfield signs and markings (including the The driver training programs for non-movement areas consist non-movement area boundary lines and their locations), the of several different methods, many of which are combined by dangers of aircraft jet blast, and right-of-way. Some airport the airport operator. In some cases, airport operators have operators taught the meaning of airfield signs and mark- prepared driver manuals for all perspective drivers to study, ings even though the drivers would be limited to ramps and similar to manuals prepared by state motor vehicle admin- aprons (see Table 13). istrations. Fewer than half of the responders (46%) offer classroom instruction for non-movement area driver train- At today's airports, it is not uncommon to see construc- ing. Twenty-nine airports employed computer-based training. tion taking place at many locations on the airfield, both in One airport uses a computer simulator for driver training pur- the movement area as well as the non-movement area. In the poses. The simulator differs from computer-based training in non-movement area, the types of construction can vary signif- that it has a digitized map of the airfield that allows a student icantly from the building of a hangar to rehabilitating aprons to maneuver around the airfield under varying conditions. and ramps. Although the chances of a runway incursion may Many of the airports surveyed also use on-the-job training be low in an instance where the contractor is limited to the non- (actual driving under the supervision of a qualified driver or movement area, there is still a need to ensure that there is suf- trainer) (see Table 12). ficient protection through training and/or through isolating TABLE 12 METHODS OF NON-MOVEMENT AREA TRAINING Large Medium Non- General Methods of Training Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Reading Manual 4 9 12 11 2 8 Classroom Instruction 1 6 7 14 3 4 Computer-Based 5 8 9 7 0 0 Training Computer Simulator 1 0 0 0 0 0 Written Test 5 8 12 12 2 3 Driving Test 0 1 1 1 2 0 Oral Exam 0 1 0 1 2 1 On-the-Job Training 3 6 6 8 3 2 Other 2 0 2 2 1 1