Click for next page ( 15

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 14
14 TABLE 13 TYPES OF SUBJECTS FOR NON-MOVEMENT AREA TRAINING Medium Non- General Subject Areas Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Airport Rules and 7 13 16 16 3 9 Regulations Speed Limits 7 13 16 17 3 8 Meaning of Airfield 5 13 9 10 3 6 Signs Meaning of Airfield 6 13 13 13 3 7 Markings Aircraft Dangers 7 13 16 16 3 8 Right-of-Way 7 13 16 18 3 8 Others 5 7 14 12 1 6 the construction area. Although some airports ensure that all between 1 and 2 years, 18 airports every 2 years, and 1 airport contractors are escorted to and from the construction site, more than 2 years (see Table 14). other airport operators will cordon off the worksite. Sixty-two survey responders indicated that they require all contractors The length of time for these recurrent driver training that work in the non-movement area to attend a driver train- programs, as with the length of time for the basic training, ing program. Eight responders (primarily small hub and non- varied considerably from one airport to another. The shortest hub primary airports) do not have such a requirement. In the program was approximately 15 minutes in duration, with the majority of cases (58 of the 62) in which the contractor is longest program being 8 hours. The majority of recurrent required to attend an airfield driver training program, the driver training programs are between 1 and 2 hours long. airport operator is responsible for providing this training. Four airport operators require the contracting party to do The content of the recurrent driver training consists pri- the training. In several cases, even though the contractor's marily of reviewing the driver manual (20 airports), classroom drivers have gone through the airport operator's driver train- instruction (21 airports), discussion of past driving incidents in ing program, they are still required to be escorted, even in the the non-movement area (16 airports), and on-the-job training non-movement area. at 4 of the responding airports. At four airports, the classroom training included computer simulators. Non-Movement Area Recurrent Driver Training SECTION 3. MOVEMENT AREA REQUIREMENTS The survey also contained several questions on non-movement area recurrent driver training requirements. Although basic Use of Perimeter Roads training for the non-movement area is an accepted practice at most airports, there has always been some question regarding The greatest need for driver training programs on an airport the need for recurrent training. As mentioned previously in is to prevent or reduce runway incursions. A vehicle on or chapter one, there is no requirement at this time to provide crossing a runway at the wrong time can have devastating recurrent training to personnel that are authorized to drive only consequences. No airport operator wants this to happen on the non-movement areas. Of the 72 responses to the ques- and should take appropriate steps to ensure that the airfield tion of the requirement for recurrent training for the non- remains safe at all times. Many airport operators have estab- movement area, 36 airports responded that they did have lished perimeter roads around the airfield and require drivers such a requirement. The 36 airports included 4 large hub pri- to stay on these perimeter roads when moving from one mary airports, 8 medium hub primary airports, 9 small hub side of the airfield to the other. This applies to employees of primary airports, 9 non-hub primary airports, 2 commercial the airport operator when they have no immediate need to be service airports, and 4 general aviation airports. With regard to on the taxiway and runways. The FAA has encouraged the the frequency of the recurrent training programs, 15 airports building of perimeter roads to help reduce runway incur- required the recurrent training at least annually, 2 airports sions; however, there are airports that have chosen to not TABLE 14 REQUIREMENT FOR RECURRENT TRAINING FOR NON-MOVEMENT AREAS Requires Recurrent Large Medium General Training Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-primary Aviation Yes 4 8 9 9 2 4 No 3 5 7 9 2 5

OCR for page 14
15 construct such a road as well as airports where such a road training for the airport operator's personnel was performed by cannot be built for various reasons. These airports, then, have a tenant or FBO. not only airport personnel, but air carriers and other tenants crossing runways and taxiways many times a day. Although At times, as stated previously, it is necessary for tenants it is essential that the airport operator have its own personnel and air carriers to access the movement area on a recurring given access to the movement areas, it is not uncommon for basis. Again, the primary instructors for non-airport staff FBOs, air carrier personnel, FAA technical operations per- are in airport operations (56 responding airports), followed sonnel, contractors, and other government agencies to seek by public safety personnel (11 responders). At seven of the authorization to drive on these areas. responding airports, the FBOs or air carriers are responsible for the training. Access to the Movement Area What Constitutes Movement Area Training It is incumbent on an airport operator to evaluate requests for various groups to access the movement area. In many cases, Movement area driver training is more comprehensive than the airport operator has been able to restrict this access to non-movements area training. It may incorporate the train- those that absolutely need the access, such as its own opera- ing subjects included in non-movement area training but also tions staff, the aircraft rescue and firefighting personnel, and include subjects that deal solely with the movement area maintenance personnel. Of the eight large hub primary air- environment. All responding airports include content on ports surveyed, only 2 authorize the airport police to drive on runway and taxiway markings and lighting, location of air the movement area, whereas 11 of 13 medium hub airport navigation-critical areas, proper communications with Air operators authorize the airport police to drive on taxiways and Traffic Control, and runway incursion awareness. The great runways. There are non-primary commercial service airports majority of responding airports also included radio-out and general aviation airports that do not have police stationed procedures with their movement area training curriculum, at the airport on a continuing basis. At many airports, FBOs and although two medium hub primary airports did not include air carrier personnel are only allowed on the movement area this type of training. Many airport operators also include a while under escort, as are contractors (see Table 15). segment on nighttime driving (see Table 16). Airports that have land and hold short procedures included training in that area as did airports that have low visibility operations, known Who Conducts Movement Area Training as surface movement guidance and control systems. Although not many airports have such a system, those that do or have For all the various categories of airports in the survey, the partial systems know that driving in low visibility can be movement area driver training for the airport operator staff is dangerous. primarily the function of airport operations. However, one of the large hub airports, one medium hub airport, three small hub In covering these different topics in the movement area airports, seven non-hub airports, and two general aviation air- training program, airport operators use a variety of different ports also employ a public safety department as well. (A public methods. Seventy-five percent of the responding airports had safety department is usually under a public safety director and prepared a driver manual for their employees. Seventy-six per- includes both the police and the fire fighters, who may or may cent use classroom instruction compared with the 46% that use not be cross trained as police and firefighters.) At one non-hub classroom instruction for non-movement training. Computer- airport and two general aviation airports, the movement area based training is also used by many airport operators, with TABLE 15 AUTHORIZED ACCESS TO THE MOVEMENT AREA Authorized Access to Medium Non- General Movement Area Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Airport Police 2 11 12 13 2 6 ARFF 8 13 16 21 5 10 Airport Operations 8 13 16 20 5 10 Maintenance 7 13 15 21 5 11 FBO Employees 2 6 8 13 4 9 Air Carrier Employees 3 8 0 3 2 2 Airport Vendors 0 2 0 0 0 2 Contractors 2 6 11 10 5 5 FAA Tech Operations 7 13 15 21 5 9 Other Federal Government 1 3 3 3 1 2 Agency Personnel ARFF = Airport Rescue Fire Fighting.

OCR for page 14
16 TABLE 16 COURSE CONTENT FOR INITIAL MOVEMENT AREA TRAINING Course Content for Initial Large Medium Non- General Movement Area Training Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Runway and Taxiway 6 11 10 12 4 8 Markings Runway and Taxiway 6 11 10 12 4 8 Lighting Land and Hold Short 1 5 5 3 1 0 Procedures SMGCS 4 6 1 3 0 0 Nighttime Driving Training 6 8 7 7 4 6 Location of Critical Areas 6 11 9 11 4 7 for Navigational Equipment Proper Communications 6 11 10 13 3 7 with Air Traffic Control Radio-Out Procedures 6 9 10 12 4 8 SMGCS = surface movement guidance and control system. some using the computer-based training offered by trade Although 76% of the surveyed airports require classroom organizations, such as the AAAE. Others use stand-alone training, the length of the training varied considerably from air- systems. Some airport operators make these computer-based port to airport. Overall, the length of time ranged from 30 min- training programs available 24 hours a day. In some cases, utes to 8 hours. Most of the training sessions lasted from 1 hour the computer-based training is also combined with classroom to 3 or 4 hours. training. One of the large hub primary airport operators uses a computer simulator for its driver training (see Table 17). Driving on the movement area of any airport can be stressful. While trying to remember the location of the vehi- Many airport operators require that employees take a writ- cle, the driver is also in communication with the air traffic ten test on airfield driving. Approximately 80% indicated controller. In many cases, there are aircraft simultaneously that they require a written test. This figure included 9 of the landing and taking off or moving between the terminal and 13 general aviation airport operators. Forty-seven percent the runway. When the environment is also added into the (35 of the responding airports) require a driving test as well mix, be it rain, fog, snow, and/or nighttime, the problems are as a written test. compounded. To assist new drivers in adapting to this dan- gerous environment, some airport operators have included The use of on-the-job training for driver education is also nighttime familiarization as part of the training. This helps a a requirement of many of the airport operators for move- driver to understand that an airfield as seen during the day- ment area training. Seventy-three percent of the respondents light hours is one thing, but as seen during the night is some- indicated that they require on-the-job training as part of the thing completely different, which can be disorienting. Of movement area training. All 8 of the large hub primary air- 74 airport operators responding to the question on training ports, 9 of 13 medium hub primary airports, 13 of 16 small to include nighttime familiarization, 70% (52 respondents) hub primary airports, 16 of 21 non-hub primary airports, 4 of indicated that such training was part of their curriculum. 5 non-primary commercial service, and 5 of 13 general avia- tion airports require such training for employees seeking to Once a driver completes the movement area driver training, drive on the movement areas of an airport. 14 of the surveyed airport operators issue an airfield driver TABLE 17 METHODS OF MOVEMENT AREA TRAINING Medium Non- General Methods of Training Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Reading Manual 8 10 13 13 3 8 Classroom Instruction 6 7 12 19 4 9 Computer-Based 4 7 8 6 1 3 Training Computer Simulator 1 0 0 0 0 0 Written Test 7 9 14 18 4 9 Driving Test 7 5 8 9 2 4 Oral Exam 1 2 6 5 2 3 On-the-Job Training 8 9 13 16 4 5

OCR for page 14
17 permit. Fifty-eight of the respondents issue either a notation on The length of time dedicated to recurrent training is gener- the airport identification badge or color code the badge in a way ally less than that for initial training. The type of airport did not to identify such drivers. However, there are several airport oper- appear to make any difference in the length of time for recur- ators that do not issue any sort of movement area driving permit rent training anymore than it does for initial training. For the or identification. This is true of one large hub primary airport, seven large hub primary airports that required recurrent train- one small hub, seven non-hub primary airports, two commercial ing, the length of time expended was from 1 to 4 hours. Two service airports, and three of the general aviation airports. of the airports reported their recurrent training programs lasted about 1 hour; another two that their programs lasted approxi- mately 2 hours, and one indicated that its program for recurrent Movement Area Recurrent Driver Training training lasted 4 hours. The remaining 2 large hub primary air- ports indicated that their program times varied. All seven of During the last several years, the FAA has emphasized the these airports required the recurrent training at least annually. importance of recurrent training for airfield drivers. The survey contained several questions on recurrent training both in the For the medium hub primary airports, recurrent training non-movement and movement areas. As mentioned in chap- programs lasted from 35 minutes to 3 hours. One airport oper- ter one, the "Call to Action" workshop recommended that recurrent training for all personnel that accessed the move- ator noted that its program was approximately 35 minutes, ment area be initiated at all airports. For 74 airport operators one 45 minutes, three reported the time as 1 hour, two indi- that responded to the questions on recurrent training, 68 (about cated their programs lasted for 1.5 hours, two have designed 92%) indicated that they do require recurrent driver training for their programs for 2 hours, and one for 2.5 hours. The remain- drivers authorized in the movement area; 7 large hub primary, ing two airport operators' recurrent training programs were 12 medium hub, 15 small hub, 21 non-hub primary, 5 com- 3 hours. Eleven of the 12 airports required recurrent training mercial service, and 8 general aviation airports (see Table 18). at least annually, whereas the 12th airport put its at "between One of the commercial service airports indicated that the recur- 1 and 2 years." rent training was for airport operator personnel only, not for tenants or air carrier personnel who may be authorized to drive Fifteen small hub primary airports require recurrent training on the movement area. The time between initial (or recurrent) programs for the movement area. One of the airports has the training and recurrent training varied from "At least annual" drivers view a video that takes approximately 30 minutes. Eight for 59 of the airport operators, to "between 1 and 2 years" for of the airports indicated that their recurrent training programs four airport operators, to "every 2 years" for 5 airports. last for 1 hour, one that its program was about 45 minutes, three that theirs lasts 1.5 hours, with the remaining two air- For the most part, it appears that recurrent driving training ports lasting 2 hours. All 15 airports required their employees programs follow closely the type of programs used for initial to undergo recurrent training at least annually. training. At 39 of the responding airports, the drivers review the driver manual. Forty-three airports have classroom train- All 21 non-hub primary airports reported that they require ing. Twenty-six use computer-based training in their recurrent recurrent training for drivers authorized in the movement area. training program. Forty-eight require their employees to take One of the programs lasts for 30 minutes, 16 for 1 hour, and a written test and 13 require a driving test. Nine of the respond- 4 last for 2 hours. Whereas 17 of the non-hub primary airports ing airports indicated that they also require an oral exam and require annual recurrent training, 2 require the training every 11 airport operators use the on-the-job training as part of their 1 and 2 years. The remaining two airports require recurrent recurrent training curriculum. training every 2 years. TABLE 18 METHODS OF RECURRENT MOVEMENT AREA TRAINING Methods for Recurrent Medium General Training Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-primary Aviation Reviewing Driver 3 9 8 9 4 6 Manual Classroom Instruction 2 5 10 15 3 8 Computer-Based 6 7 7 5 1 0 Training Computer Simulator 1 0 0 0 0 0 Written Test 5 8 10 15 4 6 Driving Test 1 1 3 5 2 1 Oral Exam 0 2 2 3 1 2 On-the-Job Training 0 1 2 6 2 0 Discussion of Past 2 5 8 13 2 4 Driving Incidents Other 0 1 3 5 2 0

OCR for page 14
18 TABLE 19 USE OF CELL PHONES FOR COMMUNICATIONS WITH AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL Allows Cell Phones Medium General with ATC Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-Primary Aviation Yes 1 4 3 4 2 1 No 7 9 13 16 1 10 ATC = Air Traffic Control. Of the 5 non-primary commercial service airports respond- Table 19). The remaining 56 airports, or 79%, did not have any ing to the questionnaire, all 5 required recurrent driver train- such agreement. Of those that were allowed to use cell phones, ing for movement areas. Three of the five programs are for one is a large hub primary airport, four are medium hubs, three 1 hour and one for 2 hours; however, the fifth program is are small hubs, four are non-hub primary, two are non-primary 8 hours in duration, which is the same time as that airport's commercial service, and one is a general aviation airport. initial training for movement areas. All five of these airport operators require annual recurrent training. Contractors Working in the Movement Area Of the 13 general aviation airports that responded to this Today, construction is very common place in and around question, eight require recurrent training for drivers in the the movement areas of airports. Some airports are com- movement area. The length of the training program, as with pletely reorienting their runway and taxiway configurations the other categories of airports, varied from 1 hour (for three for greater efficiency. Others are building new runways or of the responding airports) to 1.5 hours (for two of the air- extending existing ones to handle newer, larger aircraft. The ports) to 2 hours (for the three remaining airports). Four of the result of this is that there are contractors and subcontractors eight airports have a requirement for annual recurrent train- who need to be in the movement areas of these airports. ing, one airport for between 1 and 2 years, and three airports There are hundreds of pieces of construction equipment require it every 2 years. being used, some small and some very large. For many of these drivers, it may be the first time they have been on an Communications Between the Airport Traffic airfield in some capacity other than as a passenger on an air- Control Tower and Drivers on the Movement Area craft. To ensure that these drivers do not cause any problem- atic situations, many airports require them to be trained to At controlled airports, there is a requirement that anyone in the drive on the airfield. Some contracts call for the prime con- movement area must be in contact with the airport traffic con- tractor to train its employees, as well as the employees of all trol tower at all times. If the airport is certificated under 14 CFR the subcontractors. Some airport operators require the con- Part 139, Airport Certification, there is an explicit requirement tractors to be escorted at all times when on the airfield and to to establish and maintain communications with the tower while cordon off the area where the work is to take place. In many anywhere in the movement area (see 14 CFR 139.329). This cases, these different methods are used in combination. has historically been done by two-way radio communica- tions on published frequencies. There are also procedures set Based on the survey results, 51 airport operators, of the 74 out between Airport Traffic Control and the airport operator for that responded to Question 52, require contractors who work using emergency procedures when there is an interruption of on the movement area to attend an airport driver training pro- radio communications. Under rare circumstances, light gun gram even if the area that they are restricted to is cordoned signals may be used when radios are not working properly. off. Twenty of the respondents indicated that they do not However, today's technology has evolved to allow for better require such training (see Table 20). This is probably because and more reliable communications. In this light, the survey the operators require the construction area to be cordoned off posed a question regarding the permissibility, on an airport, to at all times. In 49 of 51 responses, the airport operator is use cell phones in place of normal communications. Of 71 tow- responsible for the training; however, there are several air- ered facilities, 15 airport operators, or 21%, had agreements ports that place that responsibility on the contractor. Some that allowed their drivers on the movement area to communi- airport operators maintain that the contractor is always under cate with Airport Traffic Control by means of cell phones (see escort; therefore, there is no need to train them. TABLE 20 CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS FOR DRIVER TRAINING IN THE MOVEMENT AREA Requires Large Medium General Contractors Training Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-primary Aviation Yes 5 11 11 13 3 8 No 3 1 3 8 2 3