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3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND of runway incursions. Table 1 and Figure 1 show the number of runway incursions that occurred from 2004 through 2007. Over the years, as airports have become more complex and The FAA's June 2008 Runway Safety Report defines a pilot busier, there has developed a need to train all personnel who deviation as an action of a pilot that violates any Federal have the need to drive on the airfield side of the airport. As air- Aviation Regulation, and an operational deviation as an occur- craft have increased in size, and speeds of these aircraft have rence attributable to an element of the air traffic system in increased significantly, there is an ever decreasing amount of which applicable separation minima were maintained, but an time for pilots or vehicle drivers on taxiways and runways to aircraft, vehicle, equipment, or personnel encroached upon a make split second decisions when on a collision course. As a landing area that was delegated to another position of operation result, there has been an increase in the number of runway without prior coordination and approval. Finally, the report incursions involving not just aircraft, but, in many cases, vehi- defines a vehicle or pedestrian deviation as one that includes cles, pedestrians, and aircraft. Even on ramps and aprons with pedestrians, vehicles, or other objects interfering with aircraft aircraft of all sizes moving to and from parking positions, it is operations by entering or moving on the movement area with- essential for all personnel to be ever observant, whether walk- out authorization from air traffic control. Vehicle or pedes- ing or driving in the vicinity of aircraft. Although it has been trian deviations account for approximately 15% to 20% of the recognized that airport operators need to train personnel who annual number of incursions. are required to be on runways and taxiways, it has not always been acknowledged that drivers on ramps and aprons needed Airport operators have the overall responsibility for deter- to be trained as well. However, this perspective is beginning mining who receives driving privileges on the airport oper- to change as airport operators and air carriers realize that the ational areas; that is, the airside, and therefore are directly congestion on ramps and aprons can be a primary cause of connected to efforts to reduce vehicle or pedestrian devia- accidents involving vehicles and aircraft. tion. Organizations, such as the AAAE and ACINA, as well as the FAA, have begun a major effort to push training As part of their training, pilots are required to know the of airport personnel to improve safety on the airfield side of meaning of markings and signs found on runways and taxi- the airport. ways. In 1990, as a result of an accident in Detroit, Michigan, the FAA, along with private industry and the airport commu- nity, revamped the airfield signing system and modified some OBJECTIVE OF STUDY airfield markings. The purpose of these changes was to help pilots maintain situational awareness, especially in certain The first objective of this study was to identify the require- weather conditions when visibility is limited. As a result of ments that airport operators place on airport personnel to the new signing system requirements, in particular, the airport receive permission to drive on the airfield side of an airport. community spent millions of dollars in the early to mid-1990s The second objective was to review the similarities and the to meet the new requirements. Although the emphasis was on differences in the various airfield driver training programs. pilot situational awareness, there was little to no emphasis on The airport operator is responsible for the overall operation training airport employees, airport tenants, and others whose of the airport and all of its environments. It is very much like jobs took them onto runways and taxiways, sometimes under governing a small city with all of the inherent problems. It is adverse conditions, except for on-the-job training, which they incumbent on airport management to adopt rules and regula- may or may not have received at some point in their career. tions to ensure that the airport remains safe for the passen- The airport community has gradually begun to realize that gers, as well as the employees of the airport operator and the there is a need to train its employees because of the inherent tenants and other operators at the facility. One of the primary dangers associated with working on runways and taxiways, areas that currently require attention is on the airfield side ramps, and aprons. and involves the control of ground vehicles. Today, owing to the size and types of aircraft, there is more ground equipment Since 1990, with the air carrier accident in Detroit, moving around the ramps and aprons, including catering trucks, Michigan, the FAA, in conjunction with the aviation indus- baggage tugs, fueling trucks, lavatory trucks, and air carts. try, has placed a major emphasis on the reduction of the risk In addition to the air carrier and fixed-base operator (FBO)