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5 train employees. The survey was distributed electronically to determined by the number of enplaned passengers (i.e., cal- each of the airport operators with an introductory letter from endar year 2006 enplaned passengers determined fiscal year ACRP. Those airport operators that did not respond initially 2008 passenger apportionments). were sent a reminder with a second copy of the survey. Of the 105 surveys transmitted, 76 were returned (72%). A com- Primary airports are grouped into four categories: large, plete list of the respondents can be found in Appendix B. medium, and small hubs, and non-hub airports. The FAA The responses were aggregated and can be found in Appen- uses the term "hub" to identify very busy commercial service dix E. In some cases, respondents did not answer all questions; airports. in others, they may have selected several answers depending on the circumstances of their individual airports. Large Hub Airports--those airports that each account for at least 1% of total U.S. passenger enplanements. The survey did not inquire about the cost of the various There are 30 large hub airports. training programs or the comparison of the effectiveness Medium Hub Airports--airports that each account for of classroom training versus computerized training. It also between 0.25% and 1% of the total passenger enplane- did not consider the content of air carriers, FBOs, and other ments. There are 37 medium hub airports. tenants' driver training programs that may go beyond that Small Hub Airports--airports that account for 0.05% to required by the airport operator. 0.25% of the total passenger enplanements. Seventy-two airports are considered small hub airports. Non-hub Primary Airports--commercial service air- CLASSIFICATION OF AIRPORTS ports that account for less than 0.05% of all commer- cial passenger enplanements, but that have more than Driver training varies from airport to airport although there 10,000 annual enplanements are categorized as non- are common features, as well as major differences, to each hub primary airports. There are 244 non-hub primary program. However, it is difficult to compare these programs airports. unless one has a basic knowledge of airport classification. Non-primary Commercial Service Airports-- This synthesis uses the following classification of airports, commercial service airports that have from 2,500 because the FAA's National Plan of Integrated Airport Sys- to 10,000 annual passenger enplanements. There are tems (NPIAS) already defines the airport universe and it is 139 non-primary commercial service airports. widely accepted (see Table 2). Basically, there are two types General Aviation Airports--airports that are not com- of airports: commercial service airports and general aviation mercial service airports. Although the NPIAS includes airports. Commercial service airports are defined as public only 2,834 general aviation airports (total of reliever airports receiving scheduled passenger service and having and general aviation airports), there are approximately 2,500 or more enplaned passengers per year. Airports that do 5,190 that are open to the public in the United States. not meet the criteria of commercial service are considered general aviation (including those general aviation airports The NPIAS can be found on the web at www.faa.gov/airports_ considered reliever airports). airtraffic/airports. Commercial service airports, of which there are 522, are further defined into primary airports and non-primary air- AIRPORTS AND PART 139, ports. Of the 522 commercial service airports, 383 have more AIRPORT CERTIFICATION than 10,000 annual passenger enplanements (also referred to as boardings) and are classified as primary airports. Primary In addition to the classification of airports as contained in the airports receive an annual apportionment of a certain amount NPIAS, there is also classification of airports based on the Code of Airport Improvement Program funds, with the amount of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Part 139. This regulation, TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF NPIAS ACTIVITY (2009) No. of Percentage of All Airports Airport Type Enplanements 30 Large hub primary 68.7 37 Medium hub primary 20.0 72 Small hub primary 8.1 244 Non-hub primary 3.0 139 Non-primary commercial service 0.1 270 Relievers 0.0 2,564 General aviation 0.0 Source: 20092013 NPIAS (National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems).