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9 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY RESULTS Surveys were sent to 105 different airports, of which 76 were from 300 to almost 4,000. The average for the 13 airports was completed and returned for a response rate of 72% (see 1,875. For the small hub primary airports, the 16 responding Table 4). airports reported a range from approximately 300 to 1,600. This resulted in an average for the small hubs of approxi- All commercial service airports that responded had some mately 767 individuals authorized to drive in non-movement type of driver training program, as did 12 of the 13 respond- areas. For the responding non-hub primary airports, the num- ing general aviation airports. Although the type of driver train- ber of personnel authorized to drive on non-movement areas ing program varied among airports, it was encouraging that ranged from a low of 30 to a high of 1,200, with an average the vast majority of the airport operators had instituted a pro- of 244. For four of the non-primary commercial service air- gram. This is especially true of general aviation airports that ports reporting, the number of personnel ranged from a low may have a lot of activity and that allow pilots to drive onto of 18 to a high of 100, for an average of 56 drivers authorized the ramp and apron areas of the airport. to drive on the non-movement areas of the airfield. The fifth non-primary commercial service had no training program for the non-movement areas and, therefore, did not record these SECTION 1. GENERAL numbers. Finally, the 9 general aviation airports responding Number of Drivers on Airfield Side of an Airport to this question indicated that as few as 100 individuals to a high of 2,200 had non-movement area driving privileges for Non-Movement Area an overall average of 654 drivers. This group of airports was more likely to allow vehicular access by pilots to the airside The number of drivers authorized to drive on the airfield side than the other groups of airports. of an airport varies according to the size of the airport (see Table 5). It is common to have air carrier personnel, caterers, FBO personnel, airport personnel, government personnel, Movement Area etc., driving on ramps and aprons. On some airports, these same types of personnel may also have driving privileges on For the movement area, the numbers of authorized drivers runways and taxiways to a more limited extent. Over the dropped substantially, as one might have suspected. For large years, the FAA has promoted perimeter roads around air- hub primary airports, the responding airport operators reported fields to keep the vehicular traffic limited on taxiways and a low of 200 personnel authorized to drive on the movement runways to those individuals necessary for the maintenance area to a high of 2,500. The overall average for the large hub and operation of taxiways and runways. This is helped to primary airports was 854. Although this appears high, the total reduce the number of runway incursions and to provide a number of people authorized in the movement area includes safer environment for ground personnel working on taxiways the airport operator's personnel but, in some instances, FBO and runways and for passengers on aircraft. and air carrier personnel (see Table 6). Based on the survey, the number of personnel autho- At the medium hub primary airports, the number of per- rized to drive on the ramps and aprons of airports varied sonnel authorized to drive on the movement area ranged from significantly from airport to airport. At the large hub pri- 50 to 1,500. For the 13 reporting medium hub primary airports, mary airports, the number varied from 2,000 to 12,000, with the average number of drivers on the movement area was an average of almost 8,000, based on the 7 airports that 425. There were 16 small hub primary airports reporting any- responded to this question. The eighth large hub primary where from 48 to 292 drivers authorized to be on the move- airport did not have a count of the number of authorized ment area, for an overall average of 132. For non-hub primary personnel because it did not have a requirement in place to airports, 21 airports responded with a low of 8 authorized to train those individuals that have access to the non-movement drive on the movement area to a high of 603, an overall average areas only. of 95. For non-primary commercial service airports, 5 airports responded indicating a low of 8 to a high of 100 individuals At the medium hub primary airports, the number of indi- were authorized to drive on the movement area, an average viduals authorized to drive on the non-movement area ranged of 53. Of the 11 airport operators responding for the general

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10 TABLE 4 NUMBER OF AIRPORT RESPONSES Airport Type Total Sent Total Responses % Large Hub Primary 9 8 89 Medium Hub Primary 14 13 93 Small Hub Primary 23 16 70 Non-hub Primary 33 21 64 Non-primary Commercial 10 5 50 Service General Aviation 16 13 81 Total 105 76 72 aviation airports, there was a low of 14 people to a high 200, Education Level of Training Programs with an average of 84. The survey contained several questions seeking information in the education level that the training programs sought. Of English or Other Languages the airport operators that responded (75) to the question asking at approximately what grade level the material in According to the results of the survey, only 4 of the 75 respon- the driver training curriculum was aimed, the majority (38) dents taught driver training in a language other than English. responded "unknown." This is probably because many of the None of the large hub primary airports that responded taught driver training programs are put together by the airport driver training in other than English. Two of the medium hub operator personnel and not by professionals who prepare primary, one small hub primary, and one general aviation air- curriculum and test materials. There were 14 responders who port taught driver training in Spanish. Three of four of these answered that the training material was prepared for 5th to airports are located in the southwest and one is on the east 8th grade comprehension and 23 responders who answered coast. The general aviation airport started its Spanish pro- that it was prepared for 9th to 12th grade comprehension. No gram within the last 2 years, whereas the other three insti- one who responded reported that the material was prepared tuted their programs within the last 4 years. Even though only for lower than 5th grade comprehension (see Table 7). 4 responders taught their driver training programs in Spanish, 21 of the 71 airport operators that responded "no" to the question on whether they taught the program in a foreign Updating the Airport's Driver Training Program language did allow interpreters to assist employees whose primary language is not English. This number included three It is not enough to develop an airfield driver training program large hub primary, four medium hub primary, eight small hub and continue to use that program indefinitely. To be effec- primary, three non-hub primary, one commercial service, and tive, a program must be updated and revised to reflect the two general aviation airports. actual airport environment, such as new construction, new TABLE 5 NUMBER OF AUTHORIZED DRIVERS--NON-MOVEMENT AREAS Responding Airports Minimum Maximum Average Large Hub Primary 3,098 12,000 7,957 Medium Hub Primary 300 4,500 1,875 Small Hub Primary 296 1,600 767 Non-hub Primary 30 1,200 244 Non-primary Commercial Service 18 100 56 General Aviation 100 2,200 654 TABLE 6 NUMBER OF AUTHORIZED DRIVERS--MOVEMENT AREAS Responding Airports Minimum Maximum Average Median Large Hub Primary 200 2,500 854 340.5 Medium Hub Primary 50 1,500 425 262 Small Hub Primary 48 292 132 100 Non-hub Primary 8 603 95 49 Non-primary Commercial Service 8 100 53 50 General Aviation 14 200 84 75

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11 TABLE 7 GRADE LEVEL COMPREHENSION General Comprehension Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Non-hub Non-primary Aviation Below 5th grade 0 0 0 0 0 0 5th to 8th grade 3 3 4 2 1 1 9th to 12th grade 1 3 5 9 2 3 Unknown 4 7 7 10 2 8 aircraft serving the airport, or the amount of traffic serving about the licensing of that person to drive a vehicle off the air- the airport. According to the survey, 54 responders indicated port. Is the applicant licensed or in possession of a valid driver's that they update the program whenever there is a need to do license? Of 74 responses to a question on whether drivers so, whereas 22 update their program at least once a year. Five are required to possess a valid driver's license issued by a state, responding airport operators said that they update their pro- 72 respondents indicated that the applicant was required to grams approximately once every 2 years. One non-hub pri- possess a valid driver's license. Two non-hub primary airports mary airport operator updated its program every 6 months. said that they did not have such a requirement (see Table 9). On the survey, no airport operator selected "never" for their response. Another interesting item here was that many of the Although 60 responding airport operators maintained that airports indicated that whereas they update their program on the driving privileges on the airfield ceased automatically a scheduled basis, such as once a year, they also update it when the airport operator became aware that a driver had his "whenever there is a need" (see Table 8). or her state driving license suspended, only 19 reported that there was a mechanism in place for the airport authority to be Owing to the emphasis on preventing runway incursions made aware of this. Fifty-four of the responders said that they and surface incidents, many airports believe it is important had no mechanism in place to be informed of the current to review the airport's driver training program for correct- status of a person authorized to drive on the airfield. ing any shortcomings in the program when there has been a runway incursion or surface incident caused by a vehicle Enforcement of Rules and Regulations operator who has been approved to be in the movement area. Fifty-nine airports indicated that they do review the pro- Rules and regulations without enforcement are meaningless; gram when this happens. Fourteen airport operators do not there must be some type of enforcement that is fair and non- review the program after such an incident. partial. Several questions on the survey were designed to elicit what type of enforcement policy airport operators used on their Initial Qualification of Drivers Seeking airports. There are many different types of enforcement poli- Airfield Driving Privileges cies as well as many different combinations of these policies. Seventy-five airport operators had some sort of enforcement When an individual applies for driving privileges on the air- policy, whereas one general aviation airport did not have field side of the airport, there has always been some question enforcement capabilities but rather relied solely on local police TABLE 8 UPDATING THE DRIVER TRAINING PROGRAM Updating the Training Non- General Program Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Every 6 Months 0 0 0 1 0 0 Once a Year 3 3 5 6 3 2 Once Every 2 years 2 1 2 0 0 0 As Needed 4 9 13 16 3 9 Never 0 0 0 0 0 0 TABLE 9 REQUIRING A VALID DRIVER'S LICENSE Requires Valid Medium Non- General Driver's License Large Hub Hub Small Hub Non-hub primary Aviation Yes 8 13 16 19 5 11 No 0 0 0 2 0 0