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5 Table 1 In many cases, the more deeply one digs into the litera- SURVEYS DISTRIBUTED AND RETURNED ture, the more the facts become unclear. Sorting the facts out--including addressing ambiguity, gauging uncertainty, untangling controversy, and establishing defensible results-- Surveys No. quantitative or qualitative--is often challenging. Distributed to states, the District of Columbia, and 61 provincial agencies Although the surveys and literature search are the primary Returned by states and the District of Columbia 38 sources for the synthesis study, the panel, which includes Returned by provincial transportation agencies 4 experts on various topics related to PBMC, provided consider- able feedback. The panel members provided general and spe- Distributed to private contractors 14 cific direction on the conduct of the report, including report Returned by private contractors 4 organization and content. Frequently, based on panel members' experience, they were able to provide substantive input, both in terms of guidance and source material. One panel member Prior studies on performance-based contracting authored a couple pages to ensure that a specific perspective Primary documents concerning specific performance- was addressed and to provide balance in the presentation. based maintenance contracts and corresponding experience The Internet site on PBMC practices around the world KEY ISSUES established and maintained by Gunter Zietlow (Zietlow 2005b) PBMC poses many challenges to those accustomed to stan- A search of citations and abstracts found in the TRB's dard procurement procedures such as low bid, best value, Transportation Research Information Service and qualifications-based selection, or even more compli- Library materials found in the collections of the TRB cated procurements involving toll road concessions, design- library build-operate and maintain, and public-private partnerships A World Bank CD-ROM containing information on involving PBMC. The maintenance community in the United PBMC experiences in many countries, including the States may be witnessing the beginning of a sea change in United States and Canada maintenance contracting. At a minimum, maintenance man- Guidance on performance-based contracting found agers need good answers to the following questions: on the Internet, such as "Seven Steps to Performance- Based Service Acquisition," developed for federal Does the growing number of transportation agencies agencies in the United States, Canada, and abroad doing PBMC Numerous Internet searches on various topics concern- suggest that there is a compelling reason for agencies ing PBMC not currently doing PBMC to consider it or try it? The author's library on maintenance and operations On balance, is the experience of agencies with PBMC management successful, unsuccessful, or mixed? Information provided by panel members. Does PBMC lead to cost savings? How likely is PBMC to result in higher LOS at the There are approximately five layers to the literature on same or lower costs? PBMC: How should the in-house maintenance workforce adapt to PBMC in light of possible significant cultural or even Broad overviews of PBMC organizational changes? Studies of PBMC in specific countries, states, prov- How does one manage the significant cultural changes inces, cities, or counties usually required to make PBMC successful? Papers and presentations that provide a general review Is PBMC an effective method of shifting risks to the of a specific contract or instance of PBMC contractors? Detailed independent evaluations, legislative audits, How imperative is it that transportation agencies and and critical reviews contractors share risks? Reports or internal memoranda containing primary Can DOTs achieve expenditure stability for mainte- or raw data concerning cost savings, productivity, and nance using PBMC? effectiveness (these include before-and-after studies; What types of measures and performance standards or cost and outcome studies of maintenance work per- targets are desirable to include in a performance-based formed by in-house staff versus PBMC; and cost and maintenance contract? outcome studies of method-based contracting versus Do contracting agencies rely only on performance PBMC). specifications in PBMC, or do they continue to