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18 Table 5 EXAMPLES OF SOME PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND STANDARDS FROM A TRANS-CANADA HIGHWAY PROJECT Target (and unit Measure Measurement Procedure of measure) a. Roughness IRI through high-speed data collections using IRI of 2.28 ASTME950 Class I profiler b. Rutting mm through high-speed data collections using Rut depth 20 mm ASTME950 Class I profiler SDI Index through high-speed data collections using c. Surface Distress SDI of 7.9 ASTME950 Class I profiler Potholes greater than 150 mm in width and Repaired within 48 d. Potholes 75 mm in depth hours e. Grass Control Mowing of foreslopes Twice per year f. Fence Maintenance Annual inspections By May 31 each year Maximum allowable accumulation allowed on the g. Snow Plowing 40 mm facility Source: A private contractor survey response. ESTABLISHMENT OF PERFORMANCE LEVELS Criteria for Establishing Performance Standards from the Performance-Based Maintenance Contracting Course presented in San Antonio, Tex., Mar. 2007 Performance levels expected of contractors can be established in a number of ways. One is to base them on performance Can the contractor influence the performance standards? levels achieved by in-house staff. A second option is to ask Is the performance standard specific? other agencies to identify their expected performance targets Is the performance standard measurable? or compare performance targets used in MQA procedures Is the performance standard achievable? adopted by different states, provinces, and countries. As stated Is the performance standard results-oriented? earlier, the measures that states use differ from one to another, Is the performance standard timely? Has the standard been measured here before? but sometimes only slightly. It is common to rate performance Does the standard conflict with the agency's standard on a scale of 0100 for all assets and maintenance services specifications? and set performance targets or standards at 80 (Smith et al. Is the standard in line with the agency's objectives and 1997). A related approach is to examine the literature, pro- desires? curement materials (RFPs and RFQs), and contracts contain- Is it practical to apply and readily observe? Does the performance standard focus on what really ing information on performance targets of different agencies. matters (i.e., focus on the assets/actions that make a Third, one can conduct benchmarking studies, assuming the difference in preserving the asset)? same performance measures are used. The NCHRP Guide Is the standard close to what is being currently achieved for Customer-Driven Benchmarking of Maintenance Activi- or is the aim to improve performance? ties can provide a framework for establishing, measuring, and Is the standard balanced between what is required to evaluating performance levels (Hyman 2006). A fourth possi- achieve it and the dollars available to achieve it? bility is to set stretch goals. Regardless of the approach taken, ource: Science Application International S it is important to address the establishment of performance Corporation 2007. measures and targets early in the contractor acquisition and partnering process. This helps to ensure that desired targets are realistic and agreeable to the agency and potential bidders. Another important consideration is technological change, INCENTIVES AND DISINCENTIVES which can significantly alter expectations regarding the level of performance that can be achieved. Finally, it is important A broad range of incentives and disincentives are used for to account for life-cycle cost and other long-term consider- performance-based contracts. Many approaches come from ations in relationship to the term of the contract and scope highway sector experience with PBMC in the United States of work allowed (e.g., maintenance and rehabilitation). To set and abroad. However, a great deal of experience with PBMC high pavement and bridge performance targets for roads and has been accumulated by a large number of agencies in the bridges in poor condition under a short-term maintenance federal government. Furthermore, state government outside contract is not reasonable. transportation routinely innovates in this area.