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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs CATHERINE NELSON, Oregon DOT NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS KATHLEEN S. AMES, Illinois DOT NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, PB Americas, Inc. Special Programs LISA FREESE, Scoot County (MN) Public Works Division JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and MALCOLM T. KERLEY, Virginia DOT Synthesis Studies RICHARD D. LAND, California DOT GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer MARK A. MAREK, Texas DOT DON TIPPMAN, Editor JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant ANANTH PRASAD, HNTB Corporation ROBERT L. SACK, New York State DOT FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, Federal Highway TOPIC PANEL Administration AHMED ABDEL AZIZ, University of Washington, Seattle LARRY VELASQUEZ, New Mexico DOT JOE S. GRAFF, Texas Department of Transportation SHAEL GWARTZ, Ontario Ministry of Transportation FRANK N. LISLE, Transportation Research Board JIM SOUBA, Nevada Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON STEVE TAKIGAWA, California Department of Transportation WILLIAM ZACCAGNINO ANDREA WARFIELD, Warfield Consulting, Doswell, VA BRUCE WYNGAARD, Ohio Civil Service Employees Association AMIR N. HANNA, Transportation Research Board (Liaison) TRB LIAISON CELSO GATCHALIAN, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) STEPHEN F. MAHER PETER A. KOPAC, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The principal author of the synthesis study was William for discussions with individuals knowledgeable about the A. Hyman, who began the project as principal engineering details of a specific maintenance contract. Others who pro- economist at Applied Research Associates, Inc. Richard vided significant input included Jennifer Brandenburg of Speir, manager of the Mid-Atlantic Division of Applied the North Carolina Department of Transportation (DOT), Research Associates, provided quality reviews and proj- Chris Christopher of Washington State DOT, Tom Raught ect oversight. Hamid Shirazi assisted in writing part of and Jeff Lowry of New Mexico DOT, and Sharon Holmes, the literature review. A number of panel members helped formerly of Florida DOT. Cynthia Stancil, office adminis- increase survey response rates, made brief written con- trator, compiled the survey results and helped prepare other tributions reflecting specific perspectives, or arranged material for incorporation into the synthesis report.