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20 incident as proof of the lack of need for external regulation of of its medium to advertisers and agencies. CAB's member interactive media. organizations include virtually all of the national and regional ad-supported cable networks, system operators and inter- connects representing more than 90% of all U.S. cable sub- Outdoor Advertising Association of America scribers, and suppliers to the cable advertising business (29). OAAA is a similar organization to the IAB in terms of its According to the CAB website, "advertisers and agencies can model. It exists to promote use of its media (historically bill- expect not only unique trend line perspectives using the indus- boards) and represent the industry's interests with local and try's syndicated media research data sources (Nielsen, etc.), but federal regulators. Like the IAB, the OAAA stages large con- also can expect the CAB to take a leadership role in the under- ferences that serve multiple purposes, including educating and writing of sophisticated original media/advertising research to motivating prospective buyers (advertisers and media agen- answer the industry's toughest `unanswered questions'" (29). cies), addressing issues facing the industry (for example, the CAB members have access to a multitude of insights, tools and lack of a credible audience measurement system), and creat- services including the following: ing a buzz about the medium (for example, by presenting awards to the advertisers and agencies that use the medium to On-site media presentations its best advantage). Marketing and media research In support of its mission "To provide leadership, services, Major planning publications such as the annual Cable TV and standards to promote, protect and advance the outdoor Facts and Cable Network Profiles advertising industry," OAAA's strategic objectives include the Multi-cultural marketing and media updates following: Instant access to important planning data through the CAB website Ensuring a positive legal and regulatory environment for Marketing case studies outdoor advertising companies Updates on ad-supported cable programming. Increasing the market share of outdoor advertising Providing credible information about outdoor advertising Like the OAAA, CAB also gives out awards annually in sev- Improving the "quality, appearance, safety and effective- eral categories, such as best creative ad. An interesting addition ness" of outdoor advertising (2) to this year's awards was several categories of sales achievement such as best application of research, best internal sales incen- OAAA hosts an annual national convention at which it tive, and best diversity advertising. Along with its awards presents its OBIE awards to advertisers and agencies for cre- dinner, the CAB also hosts an annual convention which allows ative excellence in outdoor advertising. Another way in which everyone in the industry the opportunity to spend time OAAA attempts to engage advertisers is by co-sponsoring together and share ideas and issues they may have encountered events with organizations representing advertisers. Based on throughout the year. on-site observations, it remains a challenge to draw advertis- Perhaps one of the more useful portions of the website is ers in substantial numbers to events primarily concerning the the link to FastTrax, which is CAB's source of all relevant data out-of-home advertising industry. pertaining to cable. The website instructs members to "use OAAA's original focus was billboards, for obvious reasons. these charts to drive cable sales and remain on top of indus- Now, with new forms of out-of-home advertising--indeed, try information" (29). Here, members have access to data with the reframing of outdoor advertising to the broader out- including audience growth and television advertising revenue of-home advertising--OAAA's membership is diversifying. trends, among many others. All of the owners of billboard advertising space are mem- The CAB website is a sophisticated and excellent reference bers, as are increasingly the owners of bus shelters, taxi tops, for questions pertaining to cable television advertising. Mem- and street furniture. Of note, however, is that none of the bers have access to a significant amount of data, research and more than 6,000 U.S. public transit agencies is a member. case studies. Furthermore, CAB has a support staff that is Under the heading "Transit" on its membership pages, OAAA readily available to provide members with information that lists only names of advertising sales contractors for public may not be easily accessible on the website. transit agencies. Marketing and Advertiser Trends Cabletelevision Advertising Bureau The job of the chief marketing officer (CMO) has changed The Cabletelevision Advertising Bureau (CAB) is yet another dramatically over the past decade or so. A large part of mar- industry group taking an active role in promoting the use keting is identifying the most effective means for reaching a

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21 target audience with the brand's motivating message. When to obtain those names). Such ways include email, hard mail, television ruled the media kingdom, the media decisions were direct response television, reply cards in magazines and tele- straight forward. For any brand that could afford it, there was marketing. Experiential marketing is the concept of having no question that television was the single most efficient and consumers not only hear or see your advertising, but truly effective way of reaching a mass audience. experience your brand's essence. This is done by creating an Since cable started fragmenting television audiences, the event or a venue in which consumers become involved with the CMO's media decision making has become exponentially brand. In theory, the deeper and more memorable the brand more complex. When consumer behavioraltering electronics experience, the greater the chance that this consumer not only are added to the picture (i.e., laptop computers, cell phones, becomes a customer, but a loyal customer who is so enthusias- hand-held personal display devices), it is easy to see why media tic that she recruits all her friends. strategy experts are in high demand. All this has implications for advertisers' media needs. In If this revolution were taking place in a time of great expan- general, advertisers are now looking for media that meet the sion, then money could be spent in trial of a new medium and following criteria: there would be no consequences for errors. But, marketing budgets are contracting. It is well known in the marketing Can deliver sales and prove it with precise measurement. world that the average tenure for CMOs is less than two years. Are effective and highly efficient, since budgets are tighter Pressure is on to decrease marketing spending, and many com- than they used to be. pany cultures require that every dollar spent in marketing Can reach the precise audience they are targeting without activities be held accountable for delivering sales. including people outside the target audience, which would This environment is where today's CMOs find themselves. be a waste of media dollars. They are being held more accountable than ever for producing Can break through the noise and clutter of today's 24-hour business results with their marketing initiatives. This emphasis non-stop advertising world. on immediate productivity of marketing spending certainly Offer an approach that "decreases the distance" between goes against the critical marketing objective of building brand the advertiser and the consumer, such as direct marketing equity. Nonetheless, it is reality. approaches can. As a consequence of this reality, new types of marketing are Offer an approach that engenders loyalty among con- emerging that give marketers ways to increase the productivity sumers, because so much money is required to win new of their marketing dollars. Two in particular are direct market- customers. ing and experiential marketing. Direct marketing includes Can respond to advertisers' needs to act quickly, e.g., to get all the ways to communicate with consumers by name (and a new ad up.