Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 133 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues

OCR for page R1
TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Robert I. Brownstein AECOM Consult, Inc. CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of MEMBERS Governments, Arlington Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates MEMBERS Michael Blaylock J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Jacksonville Transportation Authority Linda J. Bohlinger Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg HNTB Corp. Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Raul Bravo Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Raul V. Bravo & Associates Norfolk, VA Gregory Cook Veolia Transportation William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Terry Garcia Crews David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond StarTran Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nathaniel P. Ford, Jr. Virginia, Charlottesville SF Municipal Transportation Agency Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kim R. Green GFI GENFARE Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Jill A. Hough Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento North Dakota State University Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Angela Iannuzziello Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka ENTRA Consultants Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore John Inglish Utah Transit Authority Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Jeanne W. Krieg Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR David A. Lee Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Connecticut Transit Clarence W. Marsella Steve T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Denver Regional Transportation District Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Gary W. McNeil C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin GO Transit Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Michael P. Melaniphy Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Motor Coach Industries Frank Otero PACO Technologies EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Keith Parker Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Charlotte Area Transit System Jeffrey Rosenberg Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Amalgamated Transit Union George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Michael Scanlon University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC San Mateo County Transit District James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Beverly Scott Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority James S. Simpson Administration, U.S.DOT FTA LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the James Stem Interior, Washington, DC United Transportation Union Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Frank Tobey John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation First Transit Officials, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, APTA U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. TRB William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC John C. Horsley Lynne A. Osmus, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT AASHTO Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, Jeffrey F. Paniati U.S.DOT FHWA Steven K. Smith, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR U.S.DOT Louis Sanders Jo Strang, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT APTA Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, SECRETARY U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Matthew Welbes, Executive Director and Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, TRB U.S.DOT *Membership as of February 2009. *Membership as of February 2009.

OCR for page R1
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 133 Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues Jane Alpers DENNEEN & COMPANY Boston, MA Subject Areas Public Transit Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

OCR for page R1
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 133 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project B-33 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-11786-9 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2009929685 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2009 Transportation Research Board adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT PERMISSION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act purposes and resources of the National Research Council. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Committee defines funding levels and expected products. manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 133 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor TCRP PROJECT B-33 PANEL Field of Service Configuration Barbara D. Moulton, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA (Chair) Gerald Bachmayer, Ontira Communications Inc., Vancouver, BC Emmett J. Crockett, Jr., Jackson State University, Jackson, MS Michael D. Furnary, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA William Griffin, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Samuel Harrell, Tesoro Refining and Marketing, Inc., San Antonio, TX Jeffrey Kaley, Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority (LYNX), Orlando, FL Carol G. Smith, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Aaron S. Weinstein, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Timothy Steinitz, FTA Liaison Jack Gonzalez, APTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The study reported herein was performed under TCRP Project B-33 by Denneen & Company, a pri- vate growth strategy consulting firm in Boston, Massachusetts, between March 2007 and September 2008. Jane Alpers, Executive Vice President, was the Project Director, Principal Investigator, and report author. Research assistance was provided by Mitzi Desselles, Ph.D., Vice President, as well as Tina Elortegui, senior consultant; Natalie Stokke, research assistant; and Lee Navins, analyst. Strategy devel- opment collaboration was rendered by Mark Denneen, President and Chief Executive Officer.

OCR for page R1
FOREWORD By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 133: Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues provides strategies to significantly increase transit's share of total advertising expenditures. The report describes advertising decision makers' perceptions about transit advertising products (current and future products) and includes a strategic responsive communications plan and recommen- dations to improve those perceptions and increase transit revenue. This report will be helpful to transit agencies, transit marketers, transit advertising sales organizations, media planners, media buyers, and advertisers. Recent trends in the advertising industry have weakened traditional advertising media. Television advertising, in particular, which has long dominated national advertising sales, faces media fragmentation due to a mushrooming spectrum of cable and satellite channels and commercial-skipping technologies such as TiVo. These trends tend to decrease the attractiveness of television as a medium for advertisers. In this context, transit advertising stands out as one of the last truly affordable mass media. Advertisements on transit cannot be turned off, deleted, fast forwarded, or easily ignored. Sale of advertising in public transit facilities and vehicles is a nearly $1 billion industry generating approximately $500 million annually to transit agencies. Yet transit advertising revenue was 0.3% of total U.S. advertising expenditures in 2007. The other 99.7% of adver- tising revenues went to television, radio, billboards, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and other media. Research was needed to understand the viewpoints of advertising decision makers and to identify ways to influence them to purchase more transit advertising. Under TCRP Project B-33, "Practical Measures to Increase Transit Industry Advertising Revenues," Denneen & Company conducted a comprehensive review of literature and information on the best practices within transit and other media-trade organizations related to boosting shares of national ad spending. The information gathered included a 10-year trend line of transit advertising revenues, comparing it to all media. The cornerstone of the research was a quantitative study of media planners on a national basis. The research sought to understand their familiarity with transit advertising, percep- tions, and decision-making processes. The research team also conducted interviews with media planners, advertisers, and advertising sales contractors. Based on analysis of the infor- mation gathered, the team identified the best strategies for significantly increasing transit's share of total advertising expenditures. Included in these recommended strategies are a new positioning strategy upon which to base communications, strategies for addressing per- ceived deficiencies relative to other types of media, and a marketing strategy for broaden- ing awareness of transit media and communicating its updated value proposition. An eight-page Executive Summary of this report and a presentation explaining the find- ings, conclusions, and recommendations of TCRP Project B-33 are available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for "TCRP Report 133: Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues".

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS 1 Summary 9 Chapter 1 Background 9 Problem Statement 10 Scope of the Study 10 Research Objectives 11 Literature Review 14 Media Industry Overview 18 Promotion Activities of Media Trade Organizations 20 Marketing and Advertiser Trends 22 Chapter 2 Research Approach 22 Media Planner Quantitative Research 24 Advertiser Interviews 24 Advertising Sales Contractor Interviews 24 Transit Agency Survey 25 Chapter 3 Research Findings 25 Media Planner Quantitative Research 55 Advertiser Interviews 56 Advertising Sales Contractor Interviews 60 Transit Agency Survey 62 Chapter 4 Conclusions, Recommendations and Further Research 62 Conclusions 64 Recommendations 69 Further Research 71 References 72 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Media Planner Quantitative Survey B-1 Appendix B Advertiser Interview Guide C-1 Appendix C Advertising Sales Contractor Interview Guide D-1 Appendix D Media Planner Pre-Survey Interview Guide E-1 Appendix E Transit Agency Survey