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NCHRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 397 Bridge Management Systems for Transportation Agency Decision Making A Synthesis of Highway Practice

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Vice Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles DAVID S. EKERN, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC WILL KEMPTON, Director, California DOT, Sacramento SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR ROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, Consultant, Tyrone, GA STEVE T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando STEVE WILLIAMS, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC JAMES E. CAPONITI, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT CYNTHIA DOUGLASS, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC ROSE A. MCMURRY, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT RONALD MEDFORD, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC LYNNE A. OSMUS, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT JEFFREY F. PANIATI, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT STEVEN K. SMITH, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT JO STRANG, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC MATTHEW WELBES, Executive Director and Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of February 2009.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP Synthesis 397 Bridge Management Systems for Transportation Agency Decision Making A Synthesis of Highway Practice Consultants MICHAEL J. MARKOW Teaticket, Massachusetts And WILLIAM A. HYMAN Applied Research Associates, Inc. Elkridge, Maryland S ubject A reas Planning and Administration, and Bridges, Other Structures, Hydraulics and Hydrology Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 397 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-5 (Topic 37-07) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administra- ISSN 0547-5570 tors and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and ISBN 978-0-309-09835-9 can best be studied by highway departments individually or in coop- Library of Congress Control No. 2009902559 eration with their state universities and others. However, the accelerat- ing growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are 2009 Transportation Research Board best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials COPYRIGHT PERMISSION initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the used herein. Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Trans- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- portation. duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- The Transportation Research Board of the National Research Coun- poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the mate- cil was requested by the Association to administer the research pro- rial will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, FTA, gram because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding or Transit development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropri- authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it ate acknowledgment of the source of any development or reproduced possesses avenues of communication and cooperation with federal, material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objec- NOTICE tivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National directly to those who are in a position to use them. Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transpor- The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified tation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national impor- needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National tance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, The needs for highway research are many, and the National Coop- and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical com- erative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions mittee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. research programs. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- nical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- 500 Fifth Street, NW emies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Adminis- Washington, DC 20001 tration, the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, and the individual states participating in the National and can be ordered through the Internet at: Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. 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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs CATHERINE NELSON, Oregon DOT NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS KATHLEEN S. AMES, Illinois DOT NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, PB Americas, Inc. Special Programs LISA FREESE, Scoot County (MN) Public Works Division JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and MALCOLM T. KERLEY, Virginia DOT Synthesis Studies RICHARD D. LAND, California DOT GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer MARK A. MAREK, Texas DOT DON TIPPMAN, Editor JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant ANANTH PRASAD, HNTB Corporation ROBERT L. SACK, New York State DOT FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, Federal Highway TOPIC PANEL Administration ANWAR AHMAD, Virginia Department of Transportation LARRY VELASQUEZ, New Mexico DOT FRANK LISLE, Transportation Research Board BARTON J. NEWTON, California Department of Transportation MICHAEL O'TOOLE, Texas Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON GARY D. PETERSON, Minnesota Department of Transportation WILLIAM ZACCAGNINO HAROLD C. ROGERS, JR., Pennsylvania Department of Transportation OMAR SMADI, Iowa State University TRB LIAISON STEVE GAJ, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) STEPHEN F. MAHER ERIC P. MUNLEY, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison)

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FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consider- ation may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evalu- ating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mecha- nism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transpor- tation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-5, "Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This study gathers information on current practices that senior managers at transporta- By Jon Williams tion agencies use to make network-level decisions on resource allocations for their bridge programs. In particular, the study explores how agency bridge management systems are Program Director employed in this process. Transportation Information was gathered through a review of literature on U.S. and international bridge Research Board management, a survey of U.S. and Canadian transportation agencies, and 15 in-depth inter- views with state DOT executive and bridge managers. Michael J. Markow, Consultant, Teaticket Massachusetts, and William A. Hyman, for- merly of Applied Research Associates, Inc., Elkridge, Maryland, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 6 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 6 Management Perspectives, 6 Study Objective and Focus, 7 Study Methodology, 9 Outline of Report, 10 11 CHAPTER TWO STATE OF PRACTICE IN BRIDGE MANAGEMENT National Bridge Inspection Standards, 11 Bridge Management Systems, 18 25 CHAPTER THREE APPLYING BRIDGE MANAGEMENT TO AGENCY DECISION MAKING Overview, 25 Historical Perspective, 25 Current Bridge Management and Agency Decision-Making Practices, 34 Bridge Management System Applications to Agency Decision Making, 47 Responsible Organizational Units for Decision Making, 54 58 CHAPTER FOUR EMERGING TRENDS Overview, 58 Aftermath of the I-35W Bridge Collapse, 58 Asset Management and Bridge Preservation Initiatives, 63 Research Needs to Fill Gaps in Knowledge, 67 70 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS Synopsis of Major Findings, 70 Factors Driving Potential Change in Bridge Management, 72 Organizational Units Making Program Decisions, 74 Use of Economic Methods, 75 Standard Reports, 75 Research Needs, 76 77 REFERENCES 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY 82 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 97 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDES 99 APPENDIX C SURVEY AND INTERVIEW PARTICIPANTS 102 APPENDIX D RESPONSES TO SELECTED SURVEY QUESTIONS 122 APPENDIX E SURVEY RESPONSES: FACTORS AFFECTING BUDGETING

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