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19 CHAPTER FIVE LAND USE AND SOUND INSULATION POLICIES This chapter summarizes land use policies that prevent or owners and realtors have no identified cost, airports noted remediate incompatibilities outside of DNL 65, including other costs included city and county planning agencies and review of development proposals, zoning, easements, disclo- administrative. sure, sound insulation, building performance standards, and property acquisition. Respondents indicated that the greatest challenges to implementation are coordinating with local land use officials (32%), coordinating with realtors (21%) and coordinating PREVENTIVE LAND USE PLANNING with homeowners (18%). Respondents also noted "Not all realtors or homeowners are cooperative even though they can More than half of the surveyed airports (57%) reported having be sued for non-compliance," "Recommendations [are] not land use compatibility measures that apply outside DNL 65. always heeded," and "Sometimes the local officials do not The tools used by airports for land use compatibility planning contact the airport on critical land development." include zoning, building permits that require sound insulation of residential and noise-sensitive nonresidential land uses, and Respondents reported a range of effectiveness: 21% said disclosure to residents. Two airports reported that zoning pro- their efforts were "very effective" in preventing incompatible hibits residential development from DNL 60 to 65, and two land uses outside DNL 65, 64% said their efforts were "some- airports permit residential development with sound insulation what or moderately effective," and 16% said their efforts were provided at either DNL 55 or 60. Other land use strategies "not effective at all" (Figure 9). include noise overlay districts, state compatibility plans, air- port influence areas, and disclosure to 1 mile outside DNL 60. Navigation easements are used by 75% of the responding air- SOUND INSULATION ports. Real estate disclosures are used by 65% of the respond- ing airports. The majority of respondents (58%) do not provide sound insu- lation to homeowners living outside DNL 65; 20% provide Land use compatibility policies are communicated to sound insulation for homes in contiguous neighborhoods homeowners and realtors through newsletters or handouts ("block rounding"), and an additional 15% provide sound insu- (27%), presentation to real estate boards (32%), and individ- lation for homes within the DNL 60 dB contour. Funding for ual homeowner briefings (12%); 17% used other means of sound insulation programs outside DNL 65 comes from the air- communication, such as working with government planning port (50%), FAA funding through Passenger Facility Charges departments, public meetings, and responding to complaints. or AIP grants (36%), operators (7%), and homeowners (7%). The airports' cost to implement land use incompatible poli- Costs per home were reported between $10,000 and $15,000. cies outside DNL 65 are minimal: five respondents reported Airports use a combination of funding sources for a maximum that their costs are "minimal" or that they rely on in-house cost of $3.1 million for the entire program and a minimum construction, legal, and staff time; one respondent identified cost of $10,000 per home. The FAA contributed 80% funding total implementation costs of $250,000. Although home- for contiguous neighborhood sound insulation programs.

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20 FIGURE 9 Effectiveness of land use policies at surveyed airports.