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7 (published and as-available). The chapter includes federal, Congress and the FAA have developed a program primar- state, and local requirements, as appropriate. Table 1 summa- ily focused on allocating money to airports and local govern- rizes the relevant regulations and policies that have evolved to ments to address noise. In 1979, Congress adopted the Avia- the current application of DNL 65 as a threshold of normally tion Safety and Noise Act, which, in addition to its financial compatible residential land use. components, required the FAA to "establish a single system of measuring noise . . . establish a single system for deter- mining the exposure of individuals to noise resulting from air- REGULATIONS ADDRESSING NOISE OUTSIDE DNL 65 port operations . . . and identify land uses normally compati- ble with various exposures of individuals to noise" (49 U.S.C. Three entities share responsibility for the regulation of airports 47502). and aircraft: (1) the FAA, (2) the airport proprietor, and (3) the state and local government(s) with land use jurisdiction over The FAA addressed these requirements in Federal Avia- the airport property. Often, the airport proprietor also is the tion Regulation (FAR) Part 150 as follows: local government with land use authority; however, there are several examples of states, intergovernmental agencies, and As the unit of measurement, the FAA selected the A- major metropolitan cities operating airports on property under weighted sound level, referred to as dB(A) or often sim- the jurisdiction of one or more governmental bodies. ply as dB, which measures sound in the manner most TABLE 1 DNL 65 TIMELINE Date Event Result 1972 Congress passed Noise Control Act Required EPA Administrator to conduct a study of the " . . . implications of iden- tifying and achieving levels of cumulative noise exposure around airports . . . " and to "publish . . . information on the levels of environmental noise the attainment and maintenance of which in defined areas under various conditions are requisite to protect the public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety." 1973 EPA published Impact Characterization of Identified DNL as the measure of cumulative noise, and DNL 60 dB as the Noise Including Implications of Identify- threshold of compatibility; below this level, there should be limited annoyance ing and Achieving Levels of Cumulative and minimal complaints about aircraft noise. Noise Exposure, PB224408, July 1973 1974 EPA published Information on Levels of Recommended that DayNight Level not exceed 55 dB Environmental Noise Requisite to Pro- tect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety, March 1974 1974 Maryland passed Environmental Noise Set DNL 65 dB as its official noise limit for residential land use effective 1 July Act of 1974 1975, and DNL 60 dB when the "U.S. Fleet Noise Level is reduced 5 dB below 1 July 1975 level." 1976 FAA adopted Aviation Noise Policy Clarified roles of federal government, airport operator, and local government and identified a goal of "confining severe aircraft noise exposure levels around U.S. airports to the areas included within the airport boundary or over which the airport has a legal interest, and of reducing substantially the num- ber and extent of areas receiving noise exposure levels that interfere with human activity." 1979 Congress passed Airport Safety and Noise Required the FAA to "establish a single system of measuring noise . . . establish Act (ASNA) a single system for determining the exposure of individuals to noise resulting from airport operations . . . and identify land uses normally compatible with various exposures of individuals to noise." 1984 FAA adopted FAR Part 150 Identified noise levels below DNL 65 dB as guideline for normally compatible with residential uses in Appendix A. 1990 Congress passed Airport Noise and Directed the FAA to create two new regulations that: (1) required a phase out, Capacity Act by January 1, 2000 (with limited exceptions) of Part 36 Stage 2 civil subsonic turbojet aircraft with maximum gross takeoff weights over 75,000 pounds, and (2) established stringent requirements for airport proprietors to follow prior to adopting new restrictions on operations of Stage 2 or 3 aircraft. 2004 Congress passed Vision 100 Prohibited FAA from issuing Part 150 approval of AIP funding for land use compatibility actions outside the DNL 65 noise contour from 2004 through 2007. Also added Section 160, which allows local jurisdictions to undertake noise compatibility planning. AIP = Airport Improvement Program.