Click for next page ( 58


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 57
57 7956+00.4 7957+00 7958+00 7959+00 7959+99.4 170 Density (pcf) 160 150 140 130 120 110 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 7962+00.5 7963+02.1 7964+02.5 7965+04 7966+04.2 170 160 Density (pcf) 150 140 130 120 110 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0 1200.0 7971+23.3 7972+23.4 7973+22.3 7974+21.9 7975+21.9 170 160 150 Depth (in.) 140 130 120 110 1800.0 1900.0 2000.0 2100.0 Distance from S Catch Basin (ft.) TH23 - Spicer, MN Base Sections - Base Density Moisture Content Assumed Constant at 4.12% Analyzed by: GLM Date: 10/21/04 Checked by: KRM Date: 10/22/04 GPS Stations INFRASENSE, Inc. Arlington, MA 02476 Sheet: 1 of 1 Figure 29. Density profiles generated from the GPR test results for the crushed aggregate base layer placed along the TH-23 reconstruction project. information is grouped into two areas--those NDT devices oratory conditions with the adjustment ratios listed in with an acceptable to excellent success rate and those with Table 24. Figure 34(a) includes a comparison of the indi- poor success rates in identifying material/layer differences. vidual test points, while Figure 34(b) compares the data on a project basis. Figure 33 compared the adjusted PSPA and FWD modulus for the HMA layers using the adjustment 2.4 Comparison of Results Between ratios listed in Table 25. NDT Technologies The adjustment procedure reduced the bias between the This section provides a brief evaluation and comparison of different devices, but not the dispersion. Thus, any of these the test results between different technologies to determine NDT modulus estimating devices can be used to estimate the the reasons for the low success rates of the DCP, LWD, GPR, resilient modulus of the material with proper calibration at and EDG. the beginning of the project, with some exceptions. Deflection-Based Devices: The calculated modulus values 2.4.1 NDT Modulus Comparisons from the deflection-based devices can be affected greatly by Figure 34 compares the NDT modulus values used to the underlying materials and soils. For example, the crushed identify areas with physical differences in the unbound lay- stone base material placed in area 4 along US-280 near ers, except that the NDT values have been adjusted to lab- Opelika, Alabama, is a stiff and dense material, even though

OCR for page 57
58 Geo., Fine-Grained Geo., Coarse-Grained Line of Equality DSPA, Fine-Grained DSPA, Coarse-Grained 60 Adjusted Elastic Modulus from NDT Devices, ksi 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Laboratory Resilient Modulus, ksi (a) DSPA and the GeoGauge. DCP, Fine-Grained DCP, Coarse-Grained Line of Equality LWD, Fine-Grained LWD, Coarse-Grained 60 Adjusted Elastic Modulus from NDT Devices, ksi 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Laboratory Resilient Modulus, ksi (b) Deflection-Based and DCP methods. Figure 30. Laboratory resilient modulus versus adjusted NDT modulus. GeoGauge DSPA Zero Residual DCP LWD Zero Residual 25 Residual from Target Value, 15 Residual from Target Value, 20 10 15 5 10 ksi ksi 0 5 0 -5 -5 -10 -10 -15 -15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Laboratory Resilient Modulus,Target Value, ksi Laboratory Resilient Modulus, Target Value, ksi (a) GeoGauge and DSPA. (b) DCP and LWD. Figure 31. Residuals (laboratory minus NDT modulus values) versus adjusted NDT modulus.

OCR for page 57
59 Table 30. Tabulation of the mean of the residuals Table 31. Tabulation of the mean of the residuals and standard error for NDT devices. and standard error for NDT devices from the expected laboratory value. NDT Device GeoGauge DSPA DCP LWD Mean Residual, ksi -0.117 0.149 -0.078 0.614 NDT Device PSPA FWD Standard Error, ksi 2.419 4.486 3.768 5.884 Mean Residual, ksi 13.5 39.0 Standard Error, ksi 76 87 the deflection-based devices found it to be weaker than the other areas tested with a value less than 20 ksi. All other modulus of the entire layer. In fact, the surface of this NDT devices estimated the modulus for area 4 to be about material actually exhibited radial cracks during the seating 35 ksi or higher. An in-place modulus of 20 ksi for this drop of the DCP. Figure 35 shows the estimated modulus material is too low. Thus, variations in the subsurface layers with depth from the DCP. or materials/soils can incorrectly result in significant bias in the resilient modulus. DSPA: The DSPA can significantly overestimate the labo- 2.4.2 NDT Volumetric Property Comparisons ratory measured resilient modulus values. The US-280 2.4.2.1 Unbound Layers crushed stone base was dry or significantly below the opti- mum water content during testing in some areas. It is The EDG and GPR were used to estimate the volumetric believed that the surface of this dense, dry crushed stone is properties of the unbound materials. The following list pro- responding like a bound layer--resulting in a much higher vides a summary of the response measurements to the dry FWD PQI GPR Line of Equality 35 Coefficient of Variation, Other Devices, percent 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PSPA Coefficient of Variation, percent Figure 32. Comparison of coefficients of variation of different NDT devices. Adjusted to Laboratory Conditions Line of Equality 700 Adjusted Elastic Modulus, 600 500 FWD, ksi 400 300 200 100 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Adjusted Seismic Modulus, PSPA, ksi Figure 33. Comparison of the PSPA and FWD modulus values adjusted to laboratory conditions.

OCR for page 57
60 Table 32. NDT device and technology variability analysis; standard error. Material/Layer Property NDT Structural Volumetric Material DevicesThickness, Modulus, Density, Air Fluids in. ksi pcf Voids, % Content NDT Devices with Good Success Rates Based on Modulus or Volumetric Properties; see Section 2.1.1 GeoGauge NA 2.5 NA NA NA Fine-Grained Soils DSPA NA 4.5 NA NA NA Coarse-Grained Soils GeoGauge NA 2.5 NA NA NA & Aggregate Base DSPA NA 4.5 NA NA NA PSPA NA 76 NA NA NA HMA Mixtures PQI & PT NA NA 1.7 NA NA NDT Devices with Poor Success Rates Based on Modulus or Volumetric Properties; see Section 2.1.2 DCP NA 3.8 NA NA NA LWD NA 5.9 NA NA NA Fine-Grained Soils GPR NA NA NA NA NA EDG NA NA 0.8 NA 0.2 DCP NA 3.8 NA NA NA Coarse-Grained Soils LWD NA 5.9 NA NA NA & Aggregate Base GPR 0.8 NA 3.4 NA NA EDG NA NA 1.0 NA 0.2 FWD NA 87 NA NA NA GPR; Single 0.25 NA NA 0.40 NA HMA GPR; 0.27 NA 1.6 0.22 0.18 Multiple NOTES: 1. The standard error for the modulus estimating devices is based on the adjusted modulus values that have been adjusted to laboratory conditions. 2. The US-280 project with the PATB was removed for the GPR (single antenna) thickness data--it was the only site that resulted in a significant bias of layer thickness and the only one with a PATB layer directly beneath the layer tested. Table 33. NDT device and technology variability analysis; 95 percent precision tolerance. Material/Layer Property NDT Structural Volumetric Material DevicesThickness, Modulus, Density, Air Fluids in. ksi pcf Voids, % Content NDT Devices with Good Success Rates Based on Modulus or Volumetric Properties; see Section 2.1.1 GeoGauge NA 4.9 NA NA NA Fine-Grained Soils DSPA NA 8.8 NA NA NA Coarse-Grained Soils GeoGauge NA 4.9 NA NA NA & Aggregate Base DSPA NA 8.8 NA NA NA PSPA NA 150 NA NA NA HMA Mixtures PQI & PT NA NA 3.4 NA NA NDT Devices with Poor Success Rates Based on Modulus or Volumetric Properties; see Section 2.1.2 DCP NA 7.4 NA NA NA LWD NA 11.6 NA NA NA Fine-Grained Soils GPR NA NA NA NA NA EDG NA NA 1.6 NA 0.4 DCP NA 7.4 NA NA NA Coarse-Grained Soils LWD NA 11.6 NA NA NA & Aggregate Base GPR 1.5 NA 6.7 NA NA EDG NA NA 2.0 NA 0.4 FWD NA 170.5 NA NA NA GPR; Single 0.49 NA NA 0.8 NA HMA GPR; 0.55 NA 3.1 0.4 0.36 Multiple NOTES: 1. The precision tolerance for the modulus estimating devices is based on the adjusted modulus values that have been adjusted to laboratory conditions. 2. The US-280 project with the PATB was removed for the GPR (single antenna) thickness data--it was the only site that resulted in a significant bias of layer thickness and the only one with a PATB layer directly beneath the layer tested.

OCR for page 57
Table 34. NDT device and technology variability analysis; combined or pooled standard deviation. Material/Layer Property StructuralNDT Volumetric Material Thickness, Devices Modulus, Density, Air Fluids in. ksi pcf Voids, % Content NDT Devices with Good Success Rates Based on Modulus or Volumetric Properties; see Section 2.1.1 GeoGauge NA 1.1 NA NA NA Fine-Grained Soils DSPA NA 1.2 NA NA NA Coarse-Grained Soils GeoGauge NA 1.8 NA NA NA & Aggregate Base DSPA NA 1.5 NA NA NA PSPA NA 56 NA NA NA HMA Mixtures PQI & NA NA 2.5 NA NA PaveTracker NDT Devices with Poor Success Rates Based on Modulus or Volumetric Properties; see Section 2.1.2 DCP NA 1.9 NA NA NA LWD NA 2.0 NA NA NA Fine-Grained Soils GPR NA NA 4.2 NA NA EDG NA NA 0.7 NA 0.5 DCP NA 5.3 NA NA NA Coarse-Grained Soils LWD NA 2.0 NA NA NA & Aggregate Base GPR 0.6 NA 3.0 NA NA EDG NA NA 0.8 NA 0.6 FWD NA 55 NA NA NA GPR; Single 0.3 NA NA 2.1 NA HMA GPR; NA NA NA NA NA Multiple NOTES: 1. The pooled standard deviations for the modulus estimating devices are based on the adjusted modulus values that have been adjusted to laboratory conditions. 2. The US-280 project with the PATB was removed for the GPR (single antenna) thickness data--it was the only site that resulted in a significant bias of layer thickness and the only one with a PATB layer directly beneath the layer tested. DSPA DCP LWD Line of Equality 60 Other NDT Devices, ksi Elastic Modulus from 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elastic Modulus, GeoGauge, ksi (b) Comparison of adjusted modulus values on a project basis. DCP DSPA LWD Line of Equality 100 Elastic Modulus from Other 90 80 NDT Devices, ksi 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elastic Modulus, GeoGauge, ksi (a) Comparison of adjusted modulus values on a point-by-point basis. Figure 34. Comparison of adjusted modulus values determined from different NDT devices.

OCR for page 57
62 US-280 Base; Area 1-C US-280; Area 1-A 60 Resilient Modulus Estimated from the DCP Penetration 50 40 Rate, ksi 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Depth Below the Surface, inches Figure 35. Modulus gradient measured with the DCP for the US-280 crushed stone base material. densities obtained from construction records and traditional decreased, but across significantly different materials. volumetric tests. Changes in material density along the same project were poorly correlated to changes in the dielectric value. Figure 36 compares the dielectric values to the dry densities Figure 38 compares the dry densities measured with the measured with the EDG. No good correlation was found EDG to those measured with a traditional nuclear den- between the different materials tested. In addition, no sity gauge. There are two definite groups of data--one defined relationship was found between the two response for fine-grained soils and the other for crushed aggregate measurements for the same material. This observation base materials. As the dry density increased between dif- suggests that there are different properties affecting the ferent materials, the density from the EDG also increased. EDG and GPR results--none of which could identify the Within each group, however, no reasonable relationship physical differences at a reasonable success rate. was found. Figure 37 compares the GPR dielectric values to the dry density measured with different devices--the EDG, nuclear 2.4.2.2 HMA Layers density gauges, and sand-cone tests. No good correlation was found; only a trend was identified between the GPR Figure 39 compares the air voids measured with the GPR to results and the densities obtained from construction records. the results from other devices and methods. Figure 39(a) com- As the dry density increased, the GPR dielectric values pares the densities measured directly with the nuclear density I-85 Embankment TH-23 Embankment SH-130 Subgrade TH-23 Base US-280 Base 50 Dielectric Values, GPR 40 30 20 10 0 100 110 120 130 140 150 Dry Density, EDG, pcf Figure 36. GPR dielectric values versus the EDG dry densities measured along different projects.

OCR for page 57
63 Electrical Density Gauge Nuclear Density Gauge Power (Nuclear Density Gauge) 150 140 Dry Density, pcf 130 120 110 100 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 GPR Dielectric Values Figure 37. GPR dielectric values versus dry densities measured with nuclear and non-nuclear density gauges. gauge and PQI. There is a general trend between the air void 2.4.3 Volumetric--Modulus Comparisons measurements and densities--as air voids increase, the density decreases, but any correlation is poor. There are significant dif- 2.4.3.1 Unbound Layers ferences between the volumetric properties measured with The in-place modulus of the unbound materials is depen- these different devices. Figure 39(b) compares the air voids cal- dent on its density. The FHWA-LTPP study reported that the culated from the maximum theoretical density provided for laboratory resilient modulus was dependent on dry density each mixture to the air voids estimated from the GPR dielec- for all unbound materials (Yau and Von Quintus). In fact, tric values. As shown, no correlation exists between the devices density and water content are two volumetric properties that from the field evaluation projects included in this study. have a significant affect on the modulus of the material. Thus, Figure 40 compares the densities measured with the it follows that the NDT devices resulting in a material modu- nuclear density gauge and the PQI along the longitudinal lus should be related to the density and/or water content of joints and in areas with localized segregation. These densities the material. Dry densities and water contents were extracted are compared with the values measured away from the joints from the QA reports for the different projects included in the and outside any noticeable segregation. There is a greater field evaluation. variation in density measured with the nuclear device than Figure 41 compares the average modulus values esti- with the PQI. However, the wet surface may have affected the mated from the different NDT devices and dry densities PQI readings when the measurements were recorded. reported by the individual agencies during construction. Series1 Line of Equality 140 Dry Density, Nuclear Density 135 130 125 120 Gauge 115 110 105 100 95 90 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 Dry Density, EDG, pcf Figure 38. Dry densities measured with the EDG and nuclear density gauges.

OCR for page 57
64 PQI - TH-23 Base PQI - SMA Overlay PQI - US-280 Base PQI - US-280 Base Nuclear - SMA Overlay Nuclear - US-280 Base 170 160 Density, pcf 150 140 130 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Air Voids, GPR, percent (a) Density measured with the different devices. PQI, TH-23 PQI, SMA Nuclear, SMA PQI, US-280 Nuclear, US-280 PQI, US-280 Line of Equality 14 Air Voids, Other Devices, 12 10 percent 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Air Voids, GPR, percent (b) Air voids calculated from the maximum theoretical density for the mixture. Figure 39. Air voids measured with the GPR versus densities measured with the PQI and nuclear density gauges for different HMA mixtures. Joint Readings Segregated Areas HMA Mixture Line of Equality 170 160 Density, PQI, pcf 150 140 130 120 120 130 140 150 160 170 Density, nuclear, pcf Figure 40. Nuclear density gauge measurements compared to the PQI values along longitudinal joints and in areas with segregation.

OCR for page 57
65 GeoGauge DCP LWD Poly. (DCP) Poly. (GeoGauge) 60 Modulus from NDT Tests, 50 Unadjusted, ksi 40 30 20 10 0 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Dry Density, QA Records, pcf (a) Unadjusted modulus values. GeoGauge DCP LWD DSPA Poly. (GeoGauge) Poly. (DCP) 60 Adjusted Modulus from 50 NDT Tests, ksi 40 30 20 10 0 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Dry Density, QA Records, pcf (b) Modulus values adjusted to laboratory conditions. Figure 41. Dry density versus NDT adjusted modulus values for different materials. The important observation from this comparison is that The dry density and water contents from the QA records there is a good relationship between dry density and the were fairly dispersed and were not taken at each NDT test DCP estimated modulus, prior to adjusting the modulus location or individual area. As such, the QA data can only be values to laboratory conditions (Figure 41[a]). The resilient used to evaluate the results for different types of materials, modulus from the GeoGauge is also related to the dry den- rather than actual density variations within a project or lot. sity of the material, but appears to become insensitive to The EDG was used to measure the density and water content dry density for less dense, fine-grained soils with high water at specific test locations for the other NDT devices. content. The resilient modulus from the LWD is related to Figure 42 compares the dry densities measured with the dry density but has the greatest variation because of the EDG and modulus values estimated from the GeoGauge and influence of the underlying materials. DCP. The NDT modulus increases with increasing dry density Figure 41(b) graphically presents the same comparison over a wide range of material types, which is consistent with included in Figure 40(a), but using the adjusted modulus previous experience. However, there are clusters of data for values. The GeoGauge and DSPA have similar relationships the EDG that correspond to similar unbound materials that to dry density for both conditions. The relationship for the were tested. Within each data cluster, the correspondence DCP becomes less defined and it is improved for the LWD. between dry density and NDT modulus is poor for both Overall, the modulus values resulting from each NDT device devices. are related to the dry density across a wide range material. This observation suggests that there are other factors that The GeoGauge has the better correlation to dry density using impact the modulus within a specific area; for example, the adjusted values, followed by the DSPA and DCP. Thus, the water content and amount of coarse aggregate varying GeoGauge was the primary device used in comparing the within each data cluster. The EDG did not measure large elastic modulus to the EDG and GPR results. variations in water content within each area. In summary,

OCR for page 57
66 GeoGauge DCP Poly. (DCP) Adjusted Elastic Modulus, ksi 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Dry Density, EDG, pcf Figure 42. NDT modulus values versus dry density measured by the EDG. the within-project area variation of the modulus values air voids and increasing PSPA modulus, but no good corre- appears to be more dependent on properties other than dry lation. All NDT devices did correctly identify the difference density (e.g., water content, gradation)--assuming that the between the US-280 initial and supplemental sections, with EDG is providing an accurate estimate of the in-place dry the exception of the PQI. This difference was not planned but density. That assumption is questionable based on the data was confirmed through the use of laboratory dynamic mod- accumulated to date. ulus tests. The state agency's and contractor's QA data did Figure 43 compares the GeoGauge modulus to the GPR not identify any difference between these two areas or time dielectric values. No clear correspondence was found between periods. the dielectric values and modulus values. Specifically, a wide Figure 45 compares the PSPA modulus and the PQI den- range of dielectric values and moduli were measured, but no sity. A general trend exists for a specific mixture, but no cor- consistent relationship was found between the two properties. relation exists between these devices that can be used in Thus, material/layer properties that affect modulus within an day-to-day construction operations for control or accept- area have little effect on the dielectric values. ance. A more important observation is that the volumetric measuring devices are not being influenced by those proper- ties that affect the modulus measuring NDT devices. As an 2.4.3.2 HMA Layers example, changes in the asphalt content and gradation in Figure 44 compares the PSPA modulus and the GPR air relation to density, air voids, and stiffness changes do not voids. There is a general trend within this data set--decreasing affect density measurements as they do modulus measure- 60 Resilient Modulus, GeoGauge, 50 40 ksi 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 GPR Dielectric Values Figure 43. GPR dielectric values versus the GeoGauge modulus.