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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 626 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NDT Technology for Quality Assurance of HMA Pavement Construction

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Clifford C. Eby, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Sherry E. Little, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2009.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 626 NDT Technology for Quality Assurance of HMA Pavement Construction Harold L. Von Quintus Chetana Rao APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. Champaign, IL Robert E. Minchin, Jr. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Gainesville, FL Soheil Nazarian UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO El Paso, TX Kenneth R. Maser INFRASENSE, INC. Arlington, MA AND Brian Prowell NATIONAL CENTER FOR ASPHALT TECHNOLOGY Auburn, AL Subject Areas Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 626 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 10-65 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11777-7 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2009902460 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 626 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 10-65 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Specifications, Procedures, and Practices Jimmy W. Brumfield, Burns Cooley Dennis, Inc., Jackson, MS (Chair) Terrie Bressette, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Bouzid Choubane, Florida DOT, Gainesville, FL Gregory S. Cleveland, HDR, Inc., Pflugerville, TX Ronald Cominsky, Pennsylvania Asphalt Pavement Association, Harrisburg, PA Roger L. Green, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Larry L. Michael, Hagerstown, MD Stefan A. Romanoschi, University of Texas - Arlington, Arlington, TX Kim A. Willoughby, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Katherine A. Petros, FHWA Liaison Victor "Lee" Gallivan, Other Liaison David E. Newcomb, Other Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report contains the findings of research performed to investigate the application of nondestructive testing (NDT) technologies in the quality assurance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement construction. The report contains the results and analyses of the research performed and presents several key products, notably a recommended manual of practice with guidelines for implementing selected NDT technologies in an agency's routine quality assurance (QA) program for HMA pavement construction and detailed test methods for the recommended NDT technologies. Thus, the report will be of immediate interest to con- struction and materials engineers in state highway agencies and the private sector. Test methods used for in-place quality assurance of individual HMA and unbound pave- ment layers have changed little in past decades. Such quality assurance programs typically rely on nuclear density measurements or the results of testing conducted on pavement cores. Roughness measurements are often used to confirm that the newly constructed pave- ment has an adequate initial smoothness. More recently, NDT methods, including lasers, ground-penetrating radar, falling weight deflectometers, penetrometers, and infrared and seismic technologies, have been signifi- cantly improved and have shown potential for use in the quality assurance of HMA pave- ment construction. Furthermore, the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) uses pavement layer stiffness modulus as a key material property for design of new and rehabilitated HMA pavements. The availability of this tool to predict pavement performance will lead to increased measurement of layer moduli by owner agencies, an activity that has not been a typical component in the past for HMA project acceptance. This research had two objectives. The first was to conduct a comprehensive field experi- ment to determine the effectiveness and practicality of promising, existing NDT technolo- gies for the evaluation of the quality of unbound and bound pavement layers during or immediately after placement or for acceptance of the entire HMA pavement at its comple- tion. The second objective was to prepare a recommended manual of practice and test meth- ods for those NDT technologies judged ready for implementation by AASHTO. The research identified several NDT technologies with the potential for immediate imple- mentation in a quality assurance program of HMA pavement construction, including that of individual HMA, base, and subgrade layers. This was assessed based on (1) the ability to accurately identify construction anomalies and (2) the ability to predict material properties indicative of pavement performance. The GeoGauge is the device recommended for esti- mating the modulus of unbound layers, while the portable seismic pavement analyzer (PSPA) is recommended for estimating the modulus of HMA layers. The PaveTracker is also recommended for use in establishing and confirming the rolling pattern for HMA layers.

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These recommendations do not mean that other NDT devices included in the evaluation-- e.g., the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), the electri- cal density gauge (EDG), and the pavement quality indicator (PQI)--do not provide use- ful data for pavement and materials testing purposes. Several of these devices demonstrated distinct benefits and advantages that are documented in this report for routine pavement evaluation, but were judged to require additional development or evaluation before they are fully implemented in routine practice for QA of HMA pavements. The research was performed by Applied Research Associates, Inc. The report fully docu- ments the research leading to the recommended manual of practice and NDT methods. The recommendations are under consideration for possible adoption by the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Construction and Subcommittee on Materials.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 1 Introduction 2 NDT Devices Included in the Field Evaluation 7 Projects and Materials Included in the Field Evaluation 8 Field Evaluation of NDT Devices 18 Conclusions 21 Recommendations 23 Data Interpretation and Application 24 Chapter 1 Applicability of NDT Technologies on Construction Projects 24 1.1 Ultrasonic--PSPA and DSPA 26 1.2 Steady-State Vibratory--GeoGauge 27 1.3 Deflection-Based Methods 30 1.4 Dynamic Cone Penetrometer 31 1.5 Ground Penetrating Radar 33 1.6 Electric Current/Electronic Methods 35 1.7 Intelligent Compactors/Rollers with Mounted Response Measuring Devices 36 1.8 Summary of Process Impact 38 Chapter 2 Materials Testing for Construction Quality Determination 38 2.1 Identification of Material Anomalies and Differences 42 2.2 Estimating Target Modulus Values 51 2.3 Accuracy and Precision 57 2.4 Comparison of Results Between NDT Technologies 67 2.5 Supplemental Comparisons 74 2.6 Summary of Evaluations 80 Chapter 3 Construction Quality Determination 80 3.1 Quality Control and Acceptance Application 80 3.2 Control Limits for Statistical Control Charts 81 3.3 Parameters for Determining PWL 84 References 85 Appendix A Glossary 87 Appendix B Volume 1--Procedural Manual

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research described herein was performed under NCHRP Project 10-65 by the Transportation Sec- tor of Applied Research Associates (ARA), Inc. Mr. Harold L. Von Quintus served as the Principal Inves- tigator on the project. Mr. Von Quintus was assisted by Dr. Chetana Rao of ARA as the Project Manager and Engineer on the team. The team also included Richard Stubstad of ARA; Dr. Kenneth Maser with Infrasense; Dr. Soheil Nazarian, with the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP); Mr. Brian Prowell with the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT); and Dr. Edward Minchin with the University of Florida, Gainesville. In addition, the project team was supported by several individuals who conducted field testing, includ- ing Mr. Ajay S. Singh, Mr. Brandon Artis, and Mr. David Goodin from ARA; Mr. Manuel Celaya from UTEP; and Mr. Dennis Andersen from EDG, LLC. Dr. Brian Prowell from NCAT and Dr. Allen Cooley from BCD, Inc., provided oversight for laboratory testing of asphalt and unbound materials, respectively. Dr. Buzz Powell assisted with coordinating field tests at the NCAT test track during the construction of the test tracks. Mr. Brandon Von Quintus, Mr. Ajay Singh, and Mr. Mark Stanley of ARA assisted with development of databases for field test results and in preparation of field notes from test sites. Ms. Robin Jones, Ms. Jaime DeCaro, and Ms. Alicia Pitlik provided editorial review, final report formatting, and tab- ulation of appendices, respectively. The project team also appreciates and acknowledges the support and technical assistance of various agency and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from nondestructive testing equipment man- ufacturers who were involved in the construction and testing of pavement structures and mixtures included in various phases of the project. Those individuals directly involved in the coordination and con- struction of the projects included in the field testing plan are listed as follows: Minnesota: Mr. John Siekmier (Minnesota DOT), Mr. Art Bolland (Minnesota DOT), Mr. Chris Dun- nick (Dunnick Brothers) Alabama: Ms. Sharon Fuller (Alabama DOT), Mr. Andy Carol (Scott Bridge Company), East Alabama Paving Texas: Mr. Tom Scullion (Texas Transportation Institute), Mr. Gregory Cleveland (Texas DOT), Mr. James Klotz (Texas DOT), Mr. Tim Wade (Texas Turnpike Authority), Dr. Weng-On Tam (Avlis Engineering), Texas Lone Star Infrastructure Missouri: Mr. John Donahue (Missouri DOT), Mr. Tim Hellebusch (Missouri DOT) North Dakota: Mr. Bryon Fuchs (North Dakota DOT), Mr. Joel Wilt (North Dakota DOT), Mr. Greg Semenko (North Dakota DOT) Ohio: Mr. Roger Green (Ohio DOT), Mr. Brian French (Ohio DOT) NDT Devices and IC Rollers: Mr. Chris Connelly (BOMAG), Mr. Jeff Fox (Ammann), Mr. Christopher Dumas (FHWA), Mr. Bob Horan (Salut), Mr. Scott Fielder (Humbolt Scientific, Inc. [Part A testing]), Mr. Melvin Main (Humboldt Scientific, Inc. [Part B testing]), Mr. William Beck, (Dynatest), Caterpillar, Fugro/CarlBro, Transtech Systems Inc., Troxler Electronic Laboratories, Inc.