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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 16 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidebook for Managing Small Airports

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Richard Tucker Steve T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Huntsville International Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Laura McKee Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Air Transport Association of America Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Melissa Sabatine University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Transportation Research Board Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Lynne A. Osmus, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Steven K. Smith, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Jo Strang, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Matthew Welbes, Executive Director and Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of November 2008. *Membership as of February 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 16 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports James H. Grothaus and Thomas J. Helms UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Minneapolis, MN Shaun Germolus and Dave Beaver AIRPORTADMIN, LLC Hibbing, MN Kevin Carlson, Tim Callister, and Robert Kunkel MEAD & HUNT Madison, WI, and Minneapolis, MN Ann Johnson PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING SERVICES, LTD. Wayzata, MI Subject Area Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 16 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 01-01 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11787-6 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009930122 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 16 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-01 PANEL Field of Administration Linda Howard, Texas DOT, Austin, TX (Chair) Gregory K. Delavan, Kootenai County and Coeur d'Alene Airport, Hayden, ID Joakim Karlsson, Daniel Webster College, Nashua, NH Rise Peters, Spiegel & McDiarmid (deceased) Raymond L. Polak, Reno Stead Airport, Reno, NV Stephen P. Salvo, Snyder & Associates Inc., Ankeny, IA Paul L. Friedman, FAA Liaison Sharon Glasgow, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison Cover photograph: Chisholm-Hibbing Airport, Minnesota. Taken by and used with permission from Chisholm-Hibbing Airport Authority staff.

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FOREWORD By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 16: Guidebook for Managing Small Airports introduces the myriad issues fac- ing small airports in the United States to airport practitioners. Generally, these practitioners-- owners, operators, managers, and policy makers of small airports--are assumed to be respon- sible for a wide range of activities, often unrelated to the management responsibilities of the airport. This report presents the critically important issues that these practitioners will frequently encounter while wearing the airport manager's hat. Managers of small airports are responsible for a wide range of activities that include financial management, oversight of contracts and leases, safety and security, noise control, community relations, compliance with federal grant conditions, facility maintenance, and capital improvements. Yet these managers have varying degrees of experience and a range of backgrounds. Although some management guidance is available for their use, much of it is dated, focused on specific issues, intended for larger airports, or designed as a textbook rather than a practitioner's handbook. Research was needed to provide operators and man- agers of small airports with current, comprehensive advice on resources and techniques that can be applied to meet their responsibilities. Under ACRP Project 01-01, the University of Minnesota, Center for Transportation Studies, contacted nearly 200 airport managers to identify critical issues facing small air- ports. This valuable input was an important step toward collecting this compendium of ref- erences and resources, which are vital links to finding viable solutions. Many of these air- port managers participated in an early review of the draft guidebook to add value, utility, and significance to the final, published report. The report has the added benefit of presenting a broad array of relevant material in a way that will assist new airport managers and other important airport stakeholders to under- stand small airport management. Moreover, it presents numerous resources and references, which are relevant to these issues and will help guide readers to solutions, regardless of their level of airport experience or role at the airport. ACRP Report 16 does not represent all material relevant to managing a small airport, nor is it intended to be a complete collection and dissertation of issues facing small airports. Many topics, which are relevant to small airports, warrant their own research and report. Nonetheless, this report is undoubtedly the most current informative resource about many of the most important issues in small airport management. ACRP Web-Only Document 5: Development of a Guidebook for Managing Small Airports documents the research process and is available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for "ACRP Web-Only Document 5".

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Airport Organization 3 Governance 3 Types of Airport Ownership 3 Structure and Role of the FAA, State, and Airport 4 Function and Roles of Airport Managers 5 Function and Roles of Airport Staff 6 Communication and Coordination with Airport Owners and Boards 6 Regulatory Compliance 6 Federal Regulations 7 State and Local Regulations 8 Chapter 2 Airport Finance 8 Finance 8 Budget Development 9 Economic Impact of an Airport 12 FAA Policy and Procedures Concerning Use of Airport Revenue 12 Land Acquisition (Negotiating and Paying Fair Market Value) 13 Revenue Generation 15 Leasing and Use Agreements 15 Minimum Standards 17 Flying Clubs 17 Rules and Regulations 17 Exclusive Rights 18 Rates and Charges 19 Terms and Conditions 20 Liability and Insurance 20 Airport Development Funding 20 Grant Programs 23 Federal, State, and Local Funding 25 Capital Improvement Programming and Cash Management 27 Additional Resources 28 Chapter 3 Airport Operations 28 Safety 28 Public Protection 29 Tenant and Contractor Protection 30 Employee Protection 30 Aircraft Fueling 31 Notice to Airmen 31 Airfield Data and Communications

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31 Airfield Driving Programs 32 Wildlife Hazard Mitigation 35 Maintenance 35 Inspections and Surveillance 36 Preventive Maintenance Programs 36 Maintenance Equipment 36 Record Keeping 37 Airfield (Airside) Maintenance 38 Landside Maintenance 38 Security 38 History and Overview 39 Federal Regulations 40 Safety and Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports 40 Incorporation of State and Local Regulations 40 Development of an Airport Security Program 41 Local Training and Airport Familiarization 41 Security Technology 42 Emergency Preparedness 42 Airport Emergency Plan 42 Operational Planning Procedures 43 Emergency Training and Airport Familiarization 43 Aircraft Accidents and Incidents 43 Media Relations 44 Preferred Practices and Recommendations 44 Additional Resources 44 Wildlife Mitigation 45 Security 46 Chapter 4 Airport Planning and Development 46 Planning 46 National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems 48 State Aviation System Plans 48 Regional Aviation System Plans 49 Airport Master Plans and Airport Layout Plans 52 Design Standards 56 Project Justification 56 Compatible Land Use Plans 58 Zoning 59 Emerging Trends 62 Consultant Selection 63 Development and Construction Standards 63 Design Development 64 Construction Plans 64 Construction Specifications 65 Construction Safety and Operations Plans/Safety Manuals 66 Airport Construction Activities 69 Environmental Considerations 74 Airspace and Approaches 74 14 CFR Part 77, Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace (FAR Part 77) 76 TERPS

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77 Other Clearance Surfaces 77 Airspace (or Avigation) Easements and Rights-of-Way 77 Additional Resources 78 Chapter 5 Public Relations 78 Marketing and Advertising 78 Developing a Marketing Plan 79 Developing Marketing Strategies and Priorities 79 Measuring Success 79 Community Relations 80 Media Relations 80 Public Relations 80 Perception of the Airport in the Community 81 Public Events 81 Additional Resources 82 Chapter 6 Commercial Service 82 History and Overview 82 Airmail 82 Commercial Passenger Service 83 Positives of Air Service for a Community 83 14 CFR Part 139, Airport Certification 84 Community Compatibility 85 Master Planning Issues 85 Essential Air Service Program 85 History 85 Guidelines 85 Airline Use Agreements 85 Relationships Between the Airport and Airlines 86 Standard Lease Requirements 87 Additional Resources 88 Chapter 7 Airport Education and Training 88 Developing a Training Program 89 Developing an Airport Orientation Program 89 Performance Measurement and Benchmarking 91 References 92 Glossary of Terms 109 Acronyms 119 Annotated Bibliography 129 Appendix ACRP Projects