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30 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports specific airfield access points, and authorized operation areas. Any airfield hazards or unique sit- uations requiring awareness should be addressed during the term of the contract or lease. Finally, the airport must ensure an appropriate level of training is provided to all individuals involved in the contracted operation. Ensuring this may include the airport owner providing the training to ensure the manager, supervisors, and subordinates are properly trained and understand their responsibilities. Employee Protection Every efficient and safe operation involves adequate employee training and safety programs. Each airport operator should establish initial and recurrent training for every employee that, at a minimum, includes airfield operations, maintenance operations, administrative procedures, emer- gency and security procedures, and safety. The programs need not be complex and can evolve as the airport grows. Each program should be written and made available to all employees. Initial and recurrent training records should be documented and retained for each employee for liability pur- poses. An employee safety program should define personal protective equipment and require its use. Such items as hearing protection; hand, foot, eye and head protection; visibility vests; and proper clothing may be crucial in protecting individuals in the airport environment. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration website ( provides additional resources for establishing employee and overall public safety guidelines and procedures. Aircraft Fueling Aircraft fueling at smaller airports may be provided by the airport owner or an airport operator such as an FBO. Regardless of who owns and operates the fueling operation, it is the ultimate responsibility of the airport owner to ensure the fueling systems are well maintained and the ser- vices are provided safely. Aircraft fueling presents two major concerns: storage and handling of haz- ardous materials and fire safety. When establishing proper airport fueling operation procedures, the airport manager should include at a minimum the following two sources: the latest edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing, available at the NFPA website ( and the latest edition of FAA AC 150/5230-4, Aircraft Fuel Storage, Handling and Dispensing on Airports, available at the FAA website ( airports_airtraffic/airports/resources/advisory_circulars). It is imperative that the fueling operator establish and provide initial and recurrent employee training. Although only FAR Part 139certificated airports are required to use them, the FAA main- tains a list of approved agencies that provide fuel safety training programs. These agencies may pro- vide the resources needed to establish a professional training program. Such programs should include at a minimum aircraft familiarization, aircraft towing, product (fuel) recognition, bond- ing, testing, inspections, and fire safety training. To ensure safe and efficient fueling operations, a routine equipment inspection program should be established, combined with timely maintenance. Fueling systems generally include fuel farms (storage tanks) and fueling trucks. An increasing trend at smaller airports is the installation and operation of self-serve fuel systems. These systems provide efficiency and great customer service. However, the airport owner's liability may increase if the system is not properly and routinely inspected. Providing clear user instructions and ensuring the system is well maintained and safe will reduce the airport's liability. An inspection checklist can be developed and include routine (daily), monthly, quarterly, and annual inspections and maintenance tasks. The checklist should be documented and kept on file for a minimum of one year. Providing fire safety training is a large component of fueling operations. Initial and recurrent training should cover awareness, static control, extinguishing agents, and emergency procedures.