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Airport Operations 37 events and accidents or incidents involving aircraft, vehicles, and people on the airport property. Proper record keeping may be used to prove the airport owner is proactive in management pro- grams and may reduce potential liability if challenged in court. In addition, these records may be useful in determining cost of ownership and pre-existing factors for developing the budget for the next fiscal year. Records should be retained for a minimum of one year. Airfield (Airside) Maintenance An airfield inspection program should be established and include aircraft movement surfaces, safety areas, lighting, navigational aids (NAVAIDs), construction, wildlife hazards, and public pro- tection. The inspections should be standard, and more important, performed on a routine basis. Because an airport owner is exposed to liability regarding the safety of the operating environment, it is recommended that an airfield inspection (followed by corrective actions for noted deficien- cies) be conducted on a daily basis. Much is written on the subject of airport pavement maintenance. Because runways are the back- bones of airports, much time and money are spent nationally to inspect, repair, and replace airfield pavement. Again, routine inspections and preventive maintenance programs cannot be stressed enough because of the expense of pavement repair. If there is the slightest chance that an airport will experience snow and ice conditions, a snow and ice control plan should be established. At a minimum, a snow and ice control program should identify equipment, personnel, airfield inspection procedures, snow removal priorities, and a list of key contact personnel involved in coordinating airfield operations. It is recommended that a snow removal committee be established and the snow and ice control plan updated and discussed on an annual basis prior to the snow season. An effective method to disseminate current airfield conditions to the pilots and local tenants should be established as well. FAA AC 150/5200-30, Airport Winter Safety and Operations, is an excellent source when estab- lishing or revising the airport's snow removal plan. This source provides information on runway- friction reporting equipment utilized to measure the runway's breaking conditions for aircraft. In addition, it discusses treatment of pavements with chemical and nonchemical techniques to improve conditions. Properly maintained airfield lighting is an essential component of successful airfield operations. Lighting should be inspected on a daily basis during a period of low daylight to ensure all units are working properly. Lighting is required to be replaced as soon as a deficiency is noted. NAVAIDs may be maintained by the FAA or state or local agencies but should be monitored by the airport owner or operator to provide timely maintenance reporting. Lighting and NAVAID maintenance logs will assist with preventive programs and replacement determinations. As part of the daily airfield inspection, special attention should be given to airfield signage and markings. Markings may fade over time because of weather, frequent aircraft landings, and snow- plow operations. This fading or erosion may not be noticeable to the daily inspector. A periodic inspection specifically noting airfield markings with a fresh set of eyes will help with this issue. Outlining the critical markings with black paint and glass beads for lighting reflection are also rec- ommended to improve safety. Signage is critical for airfield safety, especially for transient pilots unfamiliar with the airport. Ensuring that airfield signs have reflective panels and working lights and remain clear of obstructions will also improve safety. Vegetation obstruction and erosion control is also part of the daily inspection. Because these issues change slowly and may not be noticeable to the daily inspector, they should be included in a specific periodic inspection. The airfield should be inspected on an annual basis for trees and other objects that may violate the airport's approach airspace. Once identified, the objects should