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38 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports be removed and a management plan established for future growth. A plan should be established to control erosion that may affect the aircraft movement areas and security fencing. Vegetation growth may also contribute to wildlife hazards. The survey conducted during the preparation of this guidebook indicated that a large percentage of airports use herbicide to help manage vegeta- tion as a maintenance practice and a wildlife mitigation technique. Most airport managers cite fre- quent grass mowing as the preferred practice. In addition, airports will allow local individuals to cut the grass as hay, which saves the airport time and money. Contact the local wildlife represen- tative for help in developing an effective plan to manage vegetation and control certain wildlife. The attacks of September 11, 2001, resulted in more financial aid for airport security. However, the motivation at most small airports for installing fencing is not the threat of terrorist attacks as much as pedestrian and wildlife incursions. Financial assistance for most small airports recognizes the combined value of safety and security. Prior to installing an airport fence, the airport manager should consider local conditions and the object to be deterred. Ground frost may push fence bases upward in northern climates; special bases may be required in sandy or wet locations; and heights exceeding 10 feet may be recommended for keeping out deer. Landside Maintenance Airport maintenance includes the landside, or pedestrian side, of the airfield as well. Routine inspections should cover public areas such as buildings, sidewalks, roadways, and parking lots. Special attention should be given to safety-related items, especially during construction and adverse weather conditions. Routine inspections help the general upkeep and save dollars under an effi- cient preventive maintenance program. Remember, the airport is the "front door" to a commu- nity and a good (or bad) first impression is the responsibility of the airport owner and operator. Security History and Overview The FAA established airport and airline security regulations in 1972 to primarily address a series of airline hijackings and other criminal threats. The security regulations were established under FAR Part 107, Airport Security, and FAR Part 108, Airplane Operator Security, to control access to the air operations area and prohibit explosives, incendiary, or deadly/dangerous weapons aboard commercial aircraft. These regulations applied to commercial air carriers and airports certified for air carrier service; there were no mandates for smaller, general aviation airports to establish and maintain an airport security program. The attacks carried out on September 11, 2001, changed the way the United States views avia- tion security. President George W. Bush signed into law the Aviation and Transportation Security Act on November 19, 2001. This law created the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) within the Department of Transportation (transferred to the Department of Homeland Security in November 2002). The TSA became the federal agency responsible for security in all modes of transportation. The TSA assumed the federal regulations overseeing aviation security. The FAA's security regulations, FAR Part 107 and Part 108, were revised and renumbered Trans- portation Security Regulation (TSR) Part 1542, Airport Security, and TSR Part 1544, Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators. Although the general consensus does not consider smaller airports and aircraft a threat, general aviation has also been considered under the efforts of reducing potential terrorist activities. The TSA in April 2003 requested the Aviation Security Advisory Committee develop a working group made up of general aviation industry organizations, general aviation airport managers, and repre-