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Airport Operations 39 sentatives of various state government aviation agencies to develop guidelines for security enhance- ments at general aviation airports. This resulted in a publication titled Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports, which will be discussed briefly later in this section. The public's common notion of airport security tends to revolve around screening commercial airline passengers and preventing terrorist activity. Because historically these issues have not played a significant security role at smaller airports, the focus of small airport security programs has been on protecting the public and preventing inadvertent entry of individuals and wildlife into the air- port operations area. Airports surveyed for this guidebook were asked their perception of the most realistic security threat(s) to their airport. The results are ranked as follows: 1. Wildlife, 2. Vandalism, 3. Theft, 4. Accidental airfield incursions by the public, 5. Terrorism, and 6. Unreasonable response time from local authorities. The top four threats cited are common concerns for almost every airport in the nation and should be addressed in an airport security program. However, each individual airport is unique and a specific site assessment is required to determine the threats and respond adequately to the level of those particular threats. Of the airports that responded to the security portion of the survey, more than 75% had airfield fencing, gates, and signage for airport security. At least 60% of the respondents want to improve their airport security by obtaining and installing access control systems and closed circuit televi- sion systems. Several respondents commented that a low funding priority and the lack of proper funding for security improvements is the airport's biggest security challenge. Federal Regulations The TSA has issued security rules and regulations under 49 CFR Chapter XII, Parts 1500 through 1699. These rules and regulations generally apply to certain airports serving commer- cial air carrier operations. A summary of the potentially applicable security requirements related to airport operations follows: Part 1520--Protection of Sensitive Security Information. Restricts the availability of security information to those with a "need to know" only. The airport security program defines those who have access to the sensitive security information. Part 1540--Civil Aviation Security. Contains rules that cover all segments of civil aviation secu- rity. It includes "individual accountability" and rules that apply to passengers, aviation employ- ees, and other individuals and persons related to civil aviation security including airport operators, aircraft operators, and foreign air carriers. Part 1542--Airport Security. Requires airport operators to adopt and carry out a security pro- gram approved by the TSA. It describes requirements for security programs, including estab- lishment of secured areas, air operations areas, security identification display areas, and access control systems. This part also lists requirements for fingerprint-based criminal history record checks of specified individuals. Part 1544--Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators. Applies to certain aircraft operators that hold operating certificates for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations, private charter passenger operations, and other aircraft operators. This part requires such operators to adopt and carry out a security program approved by the TSA. It lists requirements for screening of passengers and property.