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42 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports control systems and biometric systems. Obviously, the more complex the systems, the higher the cost will be for installation and operation. To determine which system is appropriate for a partic- ular facility, such factors as physical requirements, costs, reliability, and data recording will need to be considered. An important factor to remember when choosing an access system is its ability to remain uncompromised. The airport owner should keep an inventory of access media and have the ability to negate access if required. Surveillance methods such as CCTV systems are becoming more and more popular due to their lower costs, provision of security coverage with fewer personnel, and the ability to record events to document activities. Certain systems also have the ability to monitor and record off-site via the Internet. Various systems are available at local electronic retail outlets or national vendors. Intrusion detection systems are another method for monitoring individual facilities or the prop- erty's perimeter. The systems are typically monitored by an off-site contracting company. If an intrusion or other event such as a power outage or fire is detected, the company will contact the airport manager or local police or fire department. Again, the costs will be directly proportional to the complexity of the systems installed. Airport security requires a team concept. Awareness, education, surveillance, and vigilance must be shared by all airport users. Emergency Preparedness Airport Emergency Plan Small airports not certified under FAR Part 139 are not required to develop and maintain an air- port emergency plan (AEP). The majority of airport operators, however, have undertaken this task because of its importance and the airport operator's recognition of responsibility to public safety. Airport operators face challenges in emergency events due to the airport's distance from the responding agencies, few resources, and inadequate funding. These challenges emphasize the air- port owner's need to establish a basic AEP to minimize the possibility and extent of personal injury and property damage in the event of an emergency. The primary purpose of an AEP is to establish delegation of duties, assign agency responsibil- ities, provide coordination of response efforts, and provide an orderly transition between nor- mal and emergency operations. The development of an AEP will also provide an inventory of available resources and those that will be needed in an emergency event. A good starting point in the AEP development process should be a review of FAA AC 150/5200-31B, Airport Emergency Plan (2008). Operational Planning Procedures Each airport operator should establish operational planning procedures for the airport. The first hour of response is critical for life-saving efforts, considering an airport's lack of resources and a possible lengthy response time from other professional emergency responders. During this period, on-duty staff should be given an organized checklist that provides guidance and coordi- nation. Such a checklist should include a prioritized list of names and phone numbers of the agencies to contact. It should also provide procedures to follow as the emergency response pro- gresses. Finally, it should cover procedures to ensure airport operations are restored properly and safely before returning the facilities to public use. Checklists are best kept concise and in easy reach of potential users.