Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 53


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 52
52 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Approach sheets, FAR Part 77 surfaces sheet, Airport property plan, and Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) line-of-site plan. A sponsor should address the needs and goals for development of each element based on the airside (i.e., runways, taxiways, aprons, etc.), landside (i.e., terminals, parking areas, hangars, etc.), and facilities and services (i.e., FBO, fuel, rental cars, maintenance, etc.) for its specific airport needs. As previously noted, a comprehensive public involvement process should be used to help develop individual goals for an airport as the goals relate to the aforementioned elements. Looking at the long-term growth of the airport facility is necessary to create an effective master plan document. Design Standards The primary federal requirements for airport development, particularly design standards, are included in the Federal Aviation Regulations. The FAA publishes advisory circulars to assist air- port sponsors in complying with the requirements. The majority of this information is available to airport sponsors and the public through the FAA's website. A variety of federal and state agencies have regulatory authority over the multitude of issues that may affect airport design decisions, as well as land use and development near airports. In general, the FAA and the state aeronautics agency should be contacted when questions about airport design or development near an airport arise. In addition to contacting the FAA and the state, each airport and its host community should evaluate specific airport needs to identify other federal, state, or local agencies that may need to be consulted prior to the development of an airport master plan, ALP, land use plan, or construction project. The FAA design standards, which pertain to the phys- ical layout of an airport, are the primary source of design criteria and lay the foundation for airport development using federal funds. AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design Airport design standards, as defined by FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, are imple- mented for the safe and efficient operation of an airport (10). Many design requirements are con- tained in this advisory circular and its appendices, which cover a wide range of airport design issues, including Airport geometry; Runway and taxiway design, including safety areas; Surface gradients and line-of-sight standards; Site requirements for navigational aids and air traffic control facilities; Runway and taxiway bridge criteria; The effects and treatments for jet blasts; Wind analysis; Runway end siting requirements; Airport reference code calculations; Compass calibration pad specifications; Small airport buildings, airplane parking, and tie-down layouts; Metric conversions; ALP components and preparation recommendations; Runway and taxiway design rationale; Computer programs available for use;

OCR for page 52
Airport Planning and Development 53 Airplane data for a sample of aircraft within the national fleet; Declared distance concepts; Methods for the transfer of electronic data; New instrument approach procedures; and Recommendations for minimum distances between airports and on-airport agricultural uses. Safety areas--clear areas near the runway and the approach environs--should be evaluated as part of the master planning process, along with the other design standards, to provide adequate design measures to facilitate safe and efficient development of airport facilities. Several of the most critical of the airport design standards illustrate the importance of having these safety areas: Runway protection zones (RPZs), formerly known as clear zones, were originally established to define land areas below aircraft approach paths in order to prevent the creation of airport haz- ards or development of incompatible land use. First recommended in a 1952 report, The Airport and Its Neighbors, by the President's Airport Commission, the establishment of clear areas beyond runway ends was deemed worthy of federal management. These clear areas were intended to preclude the construction of obstructions potentially hazardous to aircraft and to control building construction for the protection of people on the ground. The U.S. Department of Commerce concurred with the recommendation on the basis that this area was "primarily for the purpose of safety for people on the ground." The FAA adopted clear zones with dimensional standards to implement the Commission's recommendation. RPZs are designed to protect people and property on the ground. They are located at the end of each runway and should ideally be controlled by the airport. Control is preferably exercised by acquisition of sufficient property interest to achieve and maintain an area that is clear of all incompatible land uses, objects, and activities. The RPZ is trapezoidal in shape and centered on the extended runway centerline. Dimensions for a particular RPZ are based on the type of aircraft and approach visibility minimums associ- ated with the runway end. Unless noted by a special circumstance, the RPZ begins 200 feet beyond the end of the runway and has specific land use restrictions in order to keep the approach and departure areas clear of obstructions. Table 3 provides dimensional information for the var- ious RPZ sizes. Figure 4 provides a graphic representation of the RPZ dimensions. The RPZ has two specific areas: the central portion of the RPZ, which is equal in width to the runway object- free area, and the controlled activity area, which is adjacent to the central portion of the RPZ. Table 3. RPZ dimensional requirements. Dimensions Approach Facilities Visibility Expected Inner Outer Length RPZ Minimums to Serve Width Width [ft (m)] acres [ft (m)] [ft (m)] Small aircraft 1,000 250 450 8.035 exclusively (300) (75) (135) Aircraft Not lower Approach 1,000 500 700 than 13.770 Categories (300) (150) (210) 1 mile A&B (1,600 m) Aircraft Approach 1,700 500 1,010 29.465 Categories (510) (150) (303) C&D Not lower than 1,700 1,000 1,510 All Aircraft 48.978 mile (510) (300) (453) (1,200 m) Lower than 2,500 1,000 1,750 mile All Aircraft 78.914 (750) (300) (525) (1,200 m)

OCR for page 52
54 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Figure 4. Runway protection zone diagram. The RPZ dimensional standards are for the runway end with the specified approach visibil- ity minimums. The departure RPZ dimensional standards are equal to or less than the approach RPZ dimensional standards. When an RPZ begins other than 200 feet (60 meters) beyond the runway end, separate approach and departure RPZs should be provided. Refer to FAA AC 150/5300-13 Change 11, Appendix 14, for approach and departure RPZs (10). Runway safety areas (RSAs) are rectangular, two-dimensional areas surrounding a runway. The FAA notes that RSAs should be cleared, graded, properly drained, and free of potentially haz- ardous surface variations. RSAs should also be capable of supporting snow removal, aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF) equipment, or an aircraft that overshoots the runway without causing damage to that aircraft. Taxiways also have similar safety area requirements. The actual size of an RSA is dependant upon the FAA classification of the runway (e.g., A-I, B-II, C-III). Runway object-free areas (OFAs) are two-dimensional ground areas surrounding runways where all above-ground objects must be removed unless fixed by their function, such as runway lights. FAA standards prohibit objects and parked aircraft from being located within the runway OFA. Taxiways also have OFAs. RSAs and OFAs are almost always contained within airport property. However, RPZs can often extend beyond airport property. Therefore, from an off-airport land use compatibility perspective, the critical safety zone identified by FAA design standards is the RPZ. The FAA recommends that, whenever possible, the entire RPZ be owned by the airport and clear of all obstructions if practica- ble. Where ownership is impracticable, aviation easements are recommended to obtain the right to maintain the height of structures and vegetation within the RPZ footprint. Obtaining easements that are restrictive enough to limit building opportunities as well as height are often just as costly to procure as purchasing the property outright. Other Supporting Documents Other supporting documents that offer information related to various design standards or FAA criteria useful for airport managers include the following: AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction Marking and Lighting. This advisory circular identifies obstruc- tion marking and lighting requirements for any proposed construction or alteration that may affect the NAS.

OCR for page 52
Airport Planning and Development 55 AC 70/7460-2, Proposed Construction or Alteration of Objects that May Affect the Navigable Airspace. This advisory circular provides information regarding the erection or alteration of an object on or near an airport that may affect the navigable airspace as required in FAR Part 77. In addition, this advisory circular explains the process by which to petition for discretionary review, thereby providing the FAA the opportunity to Recognize potential hazards and minimize the effects to aviation, Revise published data and/or issue a NOTAM, Recommend appropriate marking and lighting to make objects visible, and Depict obstacles on aeronautical charts. The complete advisory circular is available online from the FAA Regulatory and Compliance Library (www.airweb.faa.gov/). Form 7460-1, Proposed Construction or Alteration of Objects that May Affect the Navigable Airspace, and Form 7460-2, Supplemental Notice of Actual Construction or Alteration. These forms are required at all federally obligated airports to assess each proposed or tem- porary construction in the vicinity of the airport. The FAA conducts an aeronautical study and issues a determination to the proponent. The determination identifies whether the pro- posed development is a hazard to airspace. It is imperative that local planners be aware of the various critical safety considerations when developing around airports. The following requirements apply: Form must be submitted at least 30 days prior to the date the construction or alteration is to begin. Notice is required on or before the date an application for a construction permit is filed with the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), well in advance of the 30-day period. The complete documents can be found online at http://forms.faa.gov/forms. FAR Part 157, Notice of Construction, Alteration, Activation, and Deactivation of Airports. This part of the FAR provides guidelines, procedures, and standards that should be used in determining what effect construction, alteration, activation, or deactivation of an airport will have on the safe and efficient use of the navigable airspace by aircraft. A notice does not need to be filed if the work is done under a federal-aid project. The com- plete document can be found on the FAA's Central Region website (www.faa.gov/airports_ airtraffic/airports/regional_guidance/central/construction/part157/). (This guidance was developed by the FAA's Central Region ADO. Airport managers should verify the applica- bility of the information with their local FAA ADO.) Form 7480-1, Notice of Landing Area Proposal. This form works in conjunction with FAR Part 157, which requires a 90-day notification prior to any construction, alteration, deactiva- tion, or change to the use of an airport. Notice is required for plans to Construct or otherwise establish a new airport or activate an airport; Construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft landing or takeoff area of an airport; Construct, realign, alter, or activate a taxiway associated with a landing or takeoff area on a public-use airport; Deactivate, discontinue using, or abandon an airport or any landing or takeoff area for a period of one year or more; Deactivate, abandon, or discontinue using a taxiway associated with a landing or takeoff area on a public-use airport; Change the status of an airport from private use to public use or from public use to another status; Change the status from instrument flight rules (IFR) to visual flight rules (VFR) or VFR to IFR; or Establish or change any traffic patterns or traffic pattern altitude or direction. The complete document can be found on the FAA website (http://forms.faa.gov).