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58 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Zoning Zoning that facilitates the preservation of an airport through compatible land use can take on many forms, from incorporation into a local municipal zoning ordinance to acting as a stand- alone ordinance that allows for the control of land use decisions near an airport. Planning doc- uments (plans) provide the basis for the development of ordinances and regulations, which in turn provide structure for implementing land use controls. Ordinances are legal documents developed by municipalities to regulate land uses and associated activities with designated loca- tions to protect, preserve, and enhance the quality of life for residents. Regulations are the tools that provide authority for the day-to-day implementation of an ordinance. The combination of all three of these techniques (i.e., plans, ordinances, and regulations) is necessary for effective land use planning. Ordinances reflect what is written in a community's comprehensive plan and are effective tools to reduce incompatible land uses surrounding airports. When a local municipality undertakes the development of a zoning ordinance for land use compatibility, consideration should be given to current zoning and approval actions required by state agencies. A legal review of the proposed air- port land use and height overlay zoning ordinance is suggested to determine if the ordinance is consistent with local and state regulations. Zoning ordinances are used to specify any or all permitted, regulated, or restricted land uses that may endanger the health, safety, and welfare of citizens. Ordinances that regulate airport land use and height should be incorporated into a city's or county's comprehensive zoning ordinance, or both, to protect the safe operation of airports and movement of aircraft as well as the safety of peo- ple on the ground in proximity to airports. One of the most common forms of zoning associated with airports is the development of an airport overlay-zoning ordinance (AOZO). An AOZO is an extraterritorial tool that promotes compatible land use and height limitations within the vicinity of an airport. The sponsoring party, typically the local municipality, or a state statute determines the specific distance governed by the AOZO. The AOZO is most often adopted according to Land userelated restrictions, Height-related restrictions, or Combination of height- and land userelated restrictions. When feasible, it is recommended that the combination of height and land use restrictions be used when developing the AOZO in order to adequately protect the airport, safe movement of aircraft, and the persons on the ground within the vicinity of the airport. Overlay zoning applies additional conditions or restrictions to a specified area while retaining the existing base zoning classification underneath the overlay zoning districts. The AOZO can be highly effective in addressing a number of potential incompatibilities related to airport operational areas. An AOZO may limit the height of objects surrounding an airport as well as restrict specific land uses that create conditions potentially hazardous to air navigation. Such limits may be essential for protecting the health, safety, and welfare of residents as well as main- taining safe aircraft movement and airport operational areas. Land UseRelated Restrictions An AOZO that addresses land use issues supersedes the existing underlying zoning within specified zoning districts. It is adopted by city or county governments, or both, to prevent or mit- igate potentially incompatible land uses such as noise sensitivityrelated issues and safety-related issues (e.g., concentrations of people, tall structures, visual obstructions, and wildlife and bird attractants).