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Airport Planning and Development 59 Height-Related Restrictions An AOZO that focuses on the safety of the airport and the public must include height restric- tions for development beyond airport property lines. Multiple jurisdictions can fall within an air- port's area of influence. Height limits should be placed on objects, structures, and natural vegetation within this area. This concept, known as "extraterritorial zoning," plays an important role in land use development in regions that have an airport or multiple airports. Used as part of an AOZO, height restrictions preserve navigable airspace. This restriction only applies in states that have legislation that allows these types of restrictions. Legally mandated by the FAA in FAR Part 77, Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace, any object or structure that penetrates any of the "imaginary surfaces" is considered an obstruction to air naviga- tion and forms the basis for height-restriction zoning ordinances. Details regarding specific height restrictions should be included in the AOZO and kept on file with the appropriate governmental agencies (e.g., county, office of aviation, FAA). FAR Part 77 specifically requires that any person or organization intending to sponsor con- struction activities or alterations must notify the administrator of the FAA prior to construction for the following conditions: Any construction or alteration that exceeds 200 feet above ground level; Any construction or alteration: Within 20,000 feet of a public-use or military airport that exceeds a 100:1 surface from any point on the runway of each airport, with at least one runway more than 3,200 feet; Within 10,000 feet of a public-use or military airport that exceeds a 50:1 surface from any point on the runway of each airport, with its longest runway no more than 3,200 feet; or Within 5,000 feet of a public-use heliport that exceeds a 25:1 surface; Any highway, railroad, or other traverse way for which the prescribed adjusted height would exceed the above-noted standards; When requested by the FAA; or Any construction or alteration located on a public-use airport or heliport regardless of height or location. Notification to the FAA for off-airport development is done through the FAA Obstruction Evaluation/Airport Airspace Analysis (OE/AAA) page ( portal.jsp), which allows for electronic filing of the Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration (FAA Form 7460-1). For a full discussion of FAA Form 7460-1, refer to the foregoing subsection "Other Supporting Documents" under "Design Standards." There are a multitude of federal and state agencies with regulatory authority over a wide range of areas that could affect land use decisions near airports. Trying to identify each of these groups and the associated legislation would be a daunting task; consequently, it is suggested that each airport and its host community evaluate the specific needs of the airport and surrounding community to identify other agencies that may need to be consulted prior to development of a land use plan. Emerging Trends Several items are expected to have an impact on the aviation industry over the next few years. These items include the introduction of very light jets (VLJs), the introduction of smaller aircraft (often called light sport aircraft), and advances in navigational aids. Very Light Jets In 2006 the FAA certified the first VLJs to fly in the NAS. These new vehicles have sparked debate about the future of passenger travel and the aviation industry as a whole. This subsection will

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60 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports describe what VLJs are and provide information about VLJ industry trends and expectations. The FAA defines a VLJ as an aircraft that weighs 10,000 pounds or less (maximum certified takeoff weight), is certified for single-pilot operations, and is priced below other business jets. In addition, VLJs possess at least one of the following features: Advanced cockpit automation, such as moving-map GPS and multifunctional displays; Automated engine and systems management; or Integrated auto-flight, autopilot, and flight guidance systems. FAA officials have stated that procedures and policies are in place to successfully integrate VLJs into the NAS because they will operate similarly to other aircraft in the current fleet. However, the FAA is taking additional steps to specifically address any unique issues that might affect the prod- uct's integration. In August 2007 the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) published Very Light Jets-- Several Factors Could Influence Their Effect on the National Airspace System (11). The report exam- ines eight industry forecasts and estimates that roughly 3,000 to 7,600 VLJs will be delivered between 2016 and 2025. Several factors influence the variation in figures and dates--primarily the assumptions that were used (or not used). The forecasts tended to focus on development of the air taxi market, economic growth, production constraints, insurance and training requirements, and expected aircraft retirements, among other factors. It is expected that VLJs will be used in ways similar to other types of general aviation aircraft-- in corporate fleets and as business or personal aircraft. The FAA notes that the most critical and most speculative factor in the future of VLJ deliveries will be the extent to which a market for air taxi services using the jets develops. The 2007 GAO report also examined commercial aviation service options for small communi- ties and noted that current VLJ business models indicated operators would provide premium point-to-point service between cities larger than the communities eligible for the Essential Air Service (EAS) program (11). One company, DayJet, has already begun point-to-point air service in the Southeast and could prove to be a model for commercial VLJ operations. Because of reliance on an emerging air taxi market, the future of VLJs appears volatile, but there is speculation that other factors will also affect plane deliveries: Replacement market. Customers may wish to upgrade their aircraft to a VLJ based on its tech- nological capabilities. Also, a large number of aircraft are expected to be retired in the future, which would increase demand. Number of aircraft models. Many VLJ models are expected to be available to consumers. The range of capabilities and prices might strengthen demand. Dissatisfaction with other forms of transportation. Increased difficulty associated with com- mercial airline and automobile travel may lead to higher demand for VLJs. Low purchase price and operating costs. VLJs are relatively inexpensive compared to other models of turbine aircraft ($1.5 million to $3 million versus $5 million to $10 million). Access to airports with appropriate infrastructure. Manufacturers believe that VLJs will be able to use a relatively large number of private and public airports and perhaps increase demand. Conversely, infrastructure needs such as hangars and ground transportation at these facilities might limit access and hinder demand. Training and insurance requirements. Potential pilots may decide that the time and money needed to achieve acceptable levels of training and insurance prove burdensome, which may affect their willingness to fly VLJs. Production constraints. The ability of aircraft manufacturers to produce enough VLJs to meet demand may influence the number of aircraft delivered.

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Airport Planning and Development 61 Despite wide speculation about VLJs and their sales, manufacturers and the FAA believe that integration into the market will be gradual. This gradual integration could prove beneficial, as any problems with the new jets and how they operate in the NAS could be dealt with in a timely and orderly fashion. Light Sport Aircraft A new classification of aircraft called light sport aircraft (LSA) is entering the market. These air- craft give pilots the option of smaller, more economically feasible aircraft to purchase as well as build that do not require the same level of licensure to operate. These aircraft are likely to account for a small portion of the aviation industry; however, until more enter the market and there is more history from which to assess the situation, it is difficult to determine what effect these aircraft may have on the industry as a whole. Many businesses are providing designs for LSAs, which suggests a significant interest, although it is unlikely that all of the companies currently working on LSAs will survive. The primary concern associated with LSAs is the ability of LSA owners to obtain insurance for the aircraft. In the high-cost market of aviation insurance today, some airports require specific lev- els of insurance for aircraft based at a particular facility, and this requirement may place limitations on the aircraft and the airports. Additionally, there are questions about the level of demand that will exist for training and sales associated with these aircraft. Advances in Navigational Aids Area Navigation (RNAV). RNAV was developed to provide more lateral freedom and thus more complete use of available airspace. This method of navigation does not require a pilot to track directly to or from any specific radio navigation aid. It has three principal applications: A route structure can be organized between any given departure and arrival point to reduce flight distance and traffic separation; Aircraft can be flown into terminal areas on varied preprogrammed arrival and departure paths to expedite traffic flow; and Instrument approaches can be developed and certified at certain airports, without local instru- ment landing aids at that airport. Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B). ADS-B is a technology that allows pilots in the cockpit and air traffic controllers on the ground to track aircraft traffic with more accu- racy than other systems, specifically radar. ADS-B relies on the Global Navigation Satellite System to determine an aircraft's precise location. The position data are combined with other information such as aircraft type, speed, altitude, and flight number. The information is converted into a digi- tal message and broadcast via a radio transmitter. There are two components to the system. The first is an onboard transponder that emits a con- tinuous signal. The second component is a ground-based transceiver that gathers location infor- mation and projects it onto a vehicle tracking/surface moving map used by pilots and air traffic controllers. Proponents of the new technology point to several advantages: ADS-B improves safety by giving pilots and controllers reliable, accurate, real-time information about aviation traffic. The system can report aircraft positions to +/ 25 feet, more accurate than a quarter- to a half-mile for radar. Because the system has an effective range of 100 to 200 miles, ADS-B provides a greater margin to implement conflict detection and resolution than is currently available. ADS-B can signal while an aircraft is grounded. This ability provides safer, more efficient taxi operations and results in greater airport capacity.