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OCR for page 77
Airport Planning and Development 77 Other Clearance Surfaces FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design (Appendix 2), includes a description of landing threshold and runway-end siting requirements (16). Runway threshold markings identify the beginning of the runway available for landing. The threshold may be displaced from the runway end for pur- poses of clearing an object in the approach area, reducing noise over a sensitive site, or increasing the runway safety area available in the event of an undershoot. The threshold siting requirements are separate from those for Part 77 and TERPS surfaces described in the preceding paragraphs. The size, shape, and slope of the threshold siting surface depend on a variety of factors including type of approaches available (e.g., visual, circling, straight-in, precision, or nonprecision), whether nighttime approaches are restricted, airplane size, and airplane approach speed. Other clearance surfaces include NAVAID critical areas and visual aid critical areas (e.g., visual approach slope indicator and approach lights). Lastly, instrument departure operations and runway ends supporting air carrier operations require special consideration. Aircraft takeoff and climb performance is increasingly becoming a limiting factor at airports. Standard TERPS instrument departure surfaces are relatively flat (40:1) to protect for a variety of aircraft and flight conditions in a single procedure. Penetrations to the standard departure surface will result in limitations (e.g., increased departure minimums and/or climb requirements). Commercial operators flying multiengine aircraft also develop engine-inoperative routes in the event of an engine failure on takeoff for each type of aircraft and runway they operate. In these cases, it is best for an airport to establish stringent notification and review processes involving individual air carriers. Airspace (or Avigation) Easements and Rights-of-Way An airspace (or avigation) easement is the right granted to the airport's sponsor to use the air- space above another's real property to permit regular takeoffs, landings, and overflight by aircraft (or similar wording), and to cause the associated interferences on the ground. Often it limits the height of obstacles that can be constructed or allowed to grow on the property and permits the airport's sponsor to remove existing obstructions. Occasionally, certain uses such as smoke and dust generation, and light and electromagnetic emissions, are also included in avigation ease- ments. Most important, the easement is prepared against the title of the real property and is often the best means of protecting critical airspace besides direct airport ownership. There is also a point at which a fee simple acquisition becomes more cost-effective than an easement. Additional Resources Note: FAA advisory circulars are available online at advisory_circulars. Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) for Airport Operators, FAA AC 150/5200-28B. Khalafallah, A., and K. El-Rayes, Minimizing Construction-Related Hazards in Airport Expansion Projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 132, No. 6., 2006, pp. 562572. Predesign, Prebid, and Preconstruction Conferences for Airport Grant Projects, FAA AC 150/5300-9A. Standards for Specifying Construction for Airports, FAA AC 150/5370-10A. Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of Objects Around Airports, FAA AC 150/5190-4A.