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Glossary of Terms A Above Ground Level (AGL): Altitude expressed as feet above terrain or airport elevation (see Mean Sea Level). Advisory Circular (AC): A series of external FAA publications consisting of all nonregulatory material of a policy, guidance, and informational nature. Aeronautical Chart: A representation of a portion of the earth, its culture and relief, specifi- cally designated to meet the requirements of air navigation. Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM): A primary FAA publication with the purpose of instructing airmen about operating in the national airspace system of the United States. It pro- vides basic flight information, air traffic control procedures, and general instructional informa- tion concerning health, medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, accident and hazard report- ing, and types of aeronautical charts and their use. Air Carrier: A legal entity that undertakes directly by lease or other arrangements to provide air transportation. Air Carrier, Certificated Route: An air carrier holding a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity, issued by the U.S.DOT under Part 121 of the Federal Aviation Regulations, to conduct scheduled services over specified routes and a small number of nonscheduled operations. Air Carrier, Commuter: An air taxi operator who, under FAR Part 135, (1) performs at least five round trips per week between two or more points and publishes flight schedules that specify the times, days of the week, and places between which such flights are performed or (2) transports mail by air pursuant to a contract with the U.S. Postal Service. Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC): An FAA facility established to provide air traffic control to aircraft operating on an instrument flight rule flight plan within controlled airspace, principally during the en route phase of flight. Air Taxi: Operations performed by operators of aircraft holding an air taxi certificate under Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. This category includes commuter airline operations (excluding certificated commuter airlines), mail carriers under contract with the U.S. Postal Service, and operators of nonscheduled air taxi services. Typically, air taxis do not utilize aircraft with a payload capacity over 7,500 pounds or capable of carrying more than 30 passengers. Air Traffic Control (ATC): The FAA service providing separation services to participating air- borne traffic and clearances to land, take off, or taxi at airports with a control tower. 92
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Glossary of Terms 93 Aircraft Accident: An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury as a result of being in or upon the aircraft or by direct contact with the aircraft or anything attached thereto, or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage. Aircraft Classes: For the purposes of Wake Turbulence Separation Minima, air traffic control classifies aircraft as heavy, large, and small as follows: · Heavy--Aircraft capable of takeoff weights of 300,000 pounds or more, whether or not they are operating at this weight during a particular phase of flight. · Large--Aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds maximum certificated takeoff weight, up to 300,000 pounds. · Small--Aircraft of 12,500 pounds or less maximum certificated takeoff weight. Aircraft Parking Line Limit (APL): A line established by the airport authorities beyond which no part of a parked aircraft should protrude. Airfield Capacity: The maximum number of aircraft operations (landings or takeoffs) that can take place on an airfield in one hour under specific conditions. Airline Transport Pilot (ATP): The most advanced of all pilot certificates, requiring the high- est skill and experience levels. Requires a minimum of 1,500 hours flight experience, ATP written exam, and flight test. Mandatory for captains of FAR Part 121 major scheduled airlines, regional carriers, Part 125 scheduled commuter airlines, and some FAR Part 135 operations. A hiring requirement for many pilot positions in corporate and commercial general aviation flying. Airport: An area of land or water that is used or intended to be used for the landing and taking off of aircraft, including its buildings and facilities, if any. Airport Elevation: The highest point of an airport's usable runways, measured in feet above mean sea level. Airport Environs: The area surrounding an airport directly affected by the presence and oper- ation of that airport. Airport Hazard: Any structure or natural object located on or in the vicinity of a public air- port, or any use of land near such airport, that obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft landing, taking off, or taxiing at the airport. Airport Improvement Program (AIP): A program that provides financial grants-in-aid for airport development projects such as runways, taxiways, aircraft parking aprons, terminal build- ings, and land acquisition associated with airport development including runway protection zones and approach protection. Airport Layout Plan (ALP): A plan (drawings) for an airport showing boundaries and pro- posed additions to all areas owned or controlled by the sponsor for airport purposes, the location and nature of existing and proposed airport facilities and structures, and the location on the airport of existing and proposed nonaviation areas and improvements thereon. Airport Master Plan: An assembly of appropriate documents and drawings covering the devel- opment of a specific airport from a physical, economic, social, and political jurisdictional perspec- tive. The airport layout plan is a part of this plan. Airport Noise Compatibility Planning Study: A study designed to increase the compatibility of land and facilities in the areas surrounding an airport that are most directly affected by the operation of the airport. The specific purpose is to reduce the adverse effects of noise as much as
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94 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports possible by implementing both on-airport noise control measures and off-airport land use con- trol programs. Under FAR Part 150, local jurisdictions can prepare and submit to the FAA a noise exposure map for the airport's environs and a noise compatibility plan. Airport Radar Service Area (ARSA): (Obsolete--See Class C Airspace) Airport Sponsor: A public agency or tax-supported organization, such as an airport authority, that is authorized to own and operate an airport; to obtain property interests; to obtain funds; and to be legally, financially, and otherwise able to meet all applicable requirements of the current laws and regulations. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR): Approach control radar used to detect and display an air- craft's position in the terminal area. ASR provides range and azimuth information but does not provide elevation data. Coverage of the ASR can extend up to 60 miles. Airport Traffic Area: Unless otherwise specifically designated in FAR Part 93, that airspace within a horizontal radius of 5 statute miles from the geographical center of any airport at which a control tower is operating, extending from the surface up to, but not including, an altitude of 3,000 feet above the elevation of an airport. Unless otherwise authorized by air traffic control, no person may operate an aircraft within an airport traffic area except for the purpose of landing at or taking off from an airport within that area. ATC authorizations may be given as individual approval of specific operations or may be contained in written agreements between airport users and the tower concerned (See Class D Airspace). Airways: Corridors of sky usually linking very high frequency (VHF) omnidirectional ranges or nondirectional radio homing beacons. Aircraft using airways are protected by internationally agreed-upon rules of separation. Altimeter: A highly sensitive barometer that shows an aircraft's altitude above mean sea level by measuring atmospheric pressure. Altimeter Setting: A value related to local barometric pressure, usually provided to pilots by air traffic control. Used as a reference setting so that the aircraft altimeter indicates an accurate altitude. Above 18,000 feet, all pilots use a standard setting of 29.92 inches of mercury. Approach (Departure) Control: Radar-based air traffic control that provides traffic separation services outside the local immediate airport area to a distance of about 40 miles. Apron/Ramp: A defined area on an airport or heliport intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance. Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS): A non-ATC FAA facility providing pilots with weather briefing and flight-plan filing by radio and telephone and in person. Monitors flight plans for overdue aircraft and initiates search and rescue services. "Automated" refers to telephone callhandling equipment and computer information systems aiding pilot briefers. ATA: (Obsolete--See Class D Airspace) Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS): The primary surface weather observation system in the United States, supporting aviation operations and weather forecasting. Automated sensors record wind direction and speed, visibility, cloud ceiling, precipitation, etc. Data are sent automatically to the National Weather Service. At many locations, a computer-generated voice broadcasts minute-by-minute weather reports to pilots on a discrete radio frequency. Automated Terminal Information System (ATIS): A continuous broadcast on a separate air traffic control frequency of an airport's current weather (updated at least hourly). Eliminates controller requirement to read local weather data to each landing or departing aircraft.
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Glossary of Terms 95 Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS): A system that provides automated air- port weather observations to pilots on a discrete radio frequency via a computer-generated voice. Less sophisticated than automated surface observation system, usually installed using state funds. Automatic Direction Finding (ADF): A basic guidance mode providing aircraft with lateral guidance to an aviation radio station. ADF equipment provides the pilot with a directional bear- ing to an aviation radio station that is relative to the user's current location. Auxiliary Flight Service Station (XFSS): A local-service flight service station facility retained where special operational or weather conditions mandated an exception from consolidation. Provides only airport advisories and weather observations. Twenty of the 46 XFSSs are in Alaska. AVGAS: Aviation gasoline used by piston-powered aircraft. Avigation Easement: A type of acquisition of an interest in land or property that involves less- than-fee purchase. One form of avigation easement grants an airport the right to perform air- craft operations over the designated property, including operations that might cause noise, vibration, and other effects. A stronger form of easement is a deed restriction that may include (1) the right to perform aircraft operations on the property and (2) public acquisition of a landowner's rights restricting future development of the property for any use more intensive than that existing at the time of the transaction. This easement may also include specific prohi- bitions on the uses for which the property may be developed. Maximum heights of structures and other objects may also be specified. B Base: The leg perpendicular to the final leg of the traffic pattern to the landing runway. Base Leg: (See Base) Based Aircraft: Aircraft stationed at an airport on a long-term or permanent basis, usually by some form of agreement between the aircraft owner and airport management. Biometric Identification/Security: A mechanism utilized to identify and verify persons for security purposes. The most common type of biometrics are fingerprint scanners. Blast Fence: A barrier used to divert or dissipate jet or propeller blast. Building Restriction Line (BRL): A line established with respect to the runway centerline to assure that structures will not project above the imaginary surfaces required by Federal Aviation Regulations, Part 77, Obstruction Clearance Criteria. Business Aviation: The sector of general aviation (as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization) that concerns the operation of aircraft by companies for carrying passengers or goods as an aid to conducting their business, flown for purposes generally considered not for public hire, and piloted by individuals having at the minimum a valid commercial pilot license with an instrument rating. C Center: One of 24 FAA air route traffic control centers providing radar surveillance and traf- fic separation to participating en route traffic above and outside airspace handled by approach and departure control.
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96 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI): A pilot holding a commercial pilot certificate who, after passing two written tests and a practical flight exam, is FAA rated to give flight instruction. The flight instructor rating is specific as to type of instruction authorized, e.g., single-engine airplane, multiengine airplane, instrument flying (CFII), or helicopter. Class A Airspace: Airspace between 18,000 and 60,000 feet mean sea level over the contermi- nous United States. Instrument flight rule clearances are required for all aircraft operating in Class A airspace. Formerly called the positive control area. Class B Airspace: Airspace area around the busiest U.S. hub airports, typically to a radius of 20 nautical miles and up to 10,000 feet above ground level. Operations within Class B airspace require an air traffic control clearance and at least a private pilot certificate (local waivers avail- able), radio communication, and an altitude-reporting (Mode C) transponder. Formerly called terminal control area. Class C Airspace: Airspace area around busy U.S. airports (other than Class B). Radio con- tact with approach control is mandatory for all traffic. This includes an area from the surface to 1,200 feet above ground level out to five miles, and from 1,200 to 4,000 feet AGL to 10 miles from the airport. Formerly called airport radar service area. Class D Airspace: Airspace around an airport with an operating control tower, typically to a radius of five miles from the surface to 2,500 feet above ground level. Radio contact with the control tower required prior to entry. Formerly called airport traffic area. Class E Airspace: General controlled airspace comprising control areas, transition areas, Victor airways, the Continental Control Area, etc. Class F Airspace: International airspace designation not used in the United States. Class G Airspace: Uncontrolled airspace, generally the airspace from the surface up to 700 or 1,200 feet above ground level in most of the United States, but up to as high as 14,500 feet in some remote western and sparsely populated areas. Clearance: Formal instructions from air traffic control authorizing a specific route or action (e.g., climb or descend, or enter controlled airspace). Pilots may deviate from an ATC clearance in an emergency or when compliance would threaten the safety of a flight. Commercial Pilot: Holder of an FAA commercial pilot certificate, requiring a minimum of 250 flight hours (and other sub-requirements), a commercial written test, and a commercial flight test. The pilot certificate to fly for compensation or hire, often in a wide variety of com- mercial general aviation operations including sight-seeing, aerial application, glider towing, and flight instruction. It does not necessarily imply flying for a scheduled airline. (See Airline Transport Pilot. Note: More than 40% of general aviation pilots are licensed as commercial or airline transport pilots, whether they fly for a living or not.) Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF): The radio frequency, sometimes called the UNICOM frequency, used by all traffic at an airport without an operating control tower to coordi- nate approaches, landings, takeoffs, and departures. Pilots announce their positions, intentions, and actions in the traffic pattern for the benefit of other traffic. Controlled Airspace: A generic term including all airspace classes in which air traffic control services are available. Does not imply that all flight is under air traffic control. Visual flight rule aircraft may operate without air traffic control contact in most controlled airspace as long as weather conditions will permit them to see and avoid other aircraft.
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Glossary of Terms 97 D Day-Night Equivalent Sound Level (DNL): An environmental noise indicator for annoyance. It is derived from the average sound energy level over the day, evening, and night periods for one year based on energy equivalent noise level (Leq) with a penalty of 10 decibels (dBA) for night- time noise and an additional penalty of 5 dBA for evening noise. Deicing: Removing ice and snow from an aircraft. The use of liquids, chemicals, and heating equipment are used in cooler climates to reduce the effects of snow and ice. Deplanements: Passengers leaving an aircraft (see Enplanements). Deregulation Act: Airline regulatory reform act of 1978. Designed, among other things, to encourage competition among domestic air carriers, the act allows an air carrier greater freedom to enter and leave any given market. Displaced Threshold: A runway landing threshold located at a point other than the desig- nated beginning of the runway (where departures would begin). Distance Measuring Equipment (DME): Aircraft equipment that provides pilots with a readout of the distance between the DME facility (airport) and the aircraft. Direct User Access System (DUATS): A system that permits pilots with a personal computer to obtain preflight weather data and flight plans. Toll-free service available to all pilots with a current medical certificate. Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program: A federal program developed to ensure firms owned and controlled by minorities may take part in contracts supported with federal funds. Downwind Leg: A flight path parallel to the landing runway in the direction opposite the landing direction. E Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT): A radio transmitter activated automatically by the impact of an accident. Emits a warbling tone on the international emergency frequencies of 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz, and (for newer models) 406 MHz. ELT signals can be received by nearby FAA facilities, aircraft overhead, and search and rescue (SARSAT) satellites. En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS): A flight service station priority handling of real-time weather information to airborne flights (rather than for preflight planning) on a single national radio frequency of 122.0 MHz (low altitude). Engine Run-Up Area: An area on an airport where aircraft engines are serviced or tested. The noise from such servicing or testing can affect neighborhoods adjacent to the airport. Enplaned/Deplaned Passengers: The volume of passengers outbound from an airport (enplaned) or inbound to an airport (deplaned). The annual passenger volume of an airport is the total enplaned and deplaned passengers. Enplanements: Passengers boarding an aircraft (see Deplanements). Environmental Assessment (EA): An assessment of the environmental effects of a proposed action for which federal financial assistance is being requested or for which federal authorization is required. The EA serves as the basis for the FAA's environmental impact statement or finding of no significant impact, as specified in FAA Orders 1050.1D and 5050.4.
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98 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): A document prepared under the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Section 102(2)(c). The EIS represents a federal agency's evaluation of the effect of a proposed action on the environment. New regulations relating to the preparation of an EIS are published in FAA Orders 1050.1D and 5050.4. Essential Air Service (EAS): A federal program developed under the 1958 Federal Aviation Act to ensure air service to small communities throughout the United States. F FAA Order: An internal FAA directive that sets standards, procedures, and guidelines for the FAA to execute its various regulatory and grant administration mandates. FAR Part 36: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 36, which establishes noise standards for the civil aviation fleet. Some extensions for compliance are included in the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979. FAR Part 77: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 77, which establishes standards for identifying obstructions to aircraft in navigable airspace. FAR Part 77 Surfaces: Imaginary surfaces established with relation to each runway of an air- port. There are five types of surfaces: (1) primary, (2) approach, (3) transitional, (4) horizontal, and (5) conical. FAR Part 91: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 91, which establishes criteria for general oper- ating and flight rules. FAR Parts 121 and 135: The parts of Federal Aviation Regulations that specify certification and operational requirements for commercial operators of large aircraft and air taxis, respectively. FAR Part 139: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 139, which specifies certification and oper- ational requirements for airports serving air carrier aircraft. FAR Part 150: Effective February 28, 1982, Federal Aviation Regulations Part 150 implements the noise compatibility standards and provisions contained in the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979. FAR Part 150 prescribes procedures for airport sponsors who wish to develop noise exposure maps and airport noise compatibility plans to identify and mitigate airportland use compatibility problems. FAR Part 150 was published in the Federal Register in amended form September 14, 1993. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): The United States Department of Transportation's agency for aviation. In addition to regulating airports, aircraft manufacturing and parts certifica- tion, aircraft operation, and pilot certification ("licensing"), the FAA operates air traffic control, purchases and maintains navigation equipment, certifies airports, and aids airport development, among other activities. Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR): Regulations established by the FAA. These regulations are the rules that govern the operation of aircraft, airways, and airmen. Final: The last leg of the traffic pattern when the aircraft is aligned to fly straight in to the land- ing runway. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): An administrative determination by the FAA that a proposed action by the airport sponsor will have no significant impact (on the environment). Specific guidelines for the preparation of a FONSI report (see Environmental Assessment) are included in FAA Orders 1050.1D and 5050.4A.
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Glossary of Terms 99 Fixed-Base Operator (FBO): (1) A business operating at an airport that provides aircraft services to the general pubic, including but not limited to sale of fuel and oil; aircraft sales, rental, maintenance, and repair; parking and tie-down or storage of aircraft; flight instruction; air taxi/charter operations; and specialty services, such as instrument and avionics maintenance, painting, overhaul, aerial application, aerial photography, aerial hoists, or pipeline patrol. (2) The owner of such an operation. Flight Information Display System (FIDS): A display of real-time updates of flight informa- tion for all passengers through technology such as plasma television screens and liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Flight Plan: Filed by radio, telephone, computer, or in person with flight service stations, a record of aircraft number, type, and equipment; estimated time of departure and time en route; route and altitude to be flown; amount of fuel and number of persons aboard; home base and contact phone number; and other information. · Visual Flight Rules Flight Plan--Voluntary filing for cross-country flights under visual flight rules. For search and rescue use only, with no role for air traffic control. · Instrument Flight Rules Flight Plan--Mandatory filing (at least one-half hour) before a flight under instrument flight rules. Based on flight plan information, air traffic control can issue (immediately before departure) an instrument flight rules clearance to enter clouds or low- visibility conditions for instrument rather than visual flight. Flight Service Station (FSS): FAA facilities that provide pilot briefings on weather, airports, alti- tudes, routes, and other flight planning information. More specifically, FSS facilities also provide en route communications and visual flight rules search and rescue services, assist lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations, relay air traffic control clearances, originate Notices to Airmen, broadcast aviation weather and national airspace system information, receive and process instru- ment flight rules flight plans, and monitor navigational aids. In addition, at selected locations, FSSs provide en route flight advisory service (Flight Watch), take weather observations, issue airport advisories, and advise customs and immigration of transborder flights. Flight Standards District Office (FSDO): An FAA field office serving an assigned geographic area and staffed with flight standards personnel who serve the aviation industry and the general public on matters relating to the certification and operation of air carrier and general aviation aircraft. Activities include general surveillance of operational safety, certification of airmen and aircraft, accident prevention, investigation, and enforcement. Flight Watch: (See En Route Flight Advisory Service) Foreign Object Damage/Debris (FOD): Surface contaminants such as sand, rocks, and litter that contribute to hazards if ingested into engines or projected by engine blast. G General Aviation (GA): All civil aviation (excluding military) except that classified as air car- rier or air taxi. The types of aircraft typically used in general aviation activities vary from multi- engine jet aircraft to single-engine piston aircraft. General Aviation Operations: Operations performed by all civil aircraft not classified as air carrier, military, or air taxi aircraft. Glideslope: An angle approach to a runway utilizing the glideslope antenna of an instrument landing system.
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100 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Global Positioning System (GPS): Satellite-based navigation system operated by the Department of Defense, providing extremely accurate position, time, and speed information to civilian and military users. Based on a "constellation" of 24 satellites, GPS will replace ground- based navigation systems (e.g., VHF omnidirectional range, instrument landing system) as the primary worldwide air navigation system in the 21st century. Ground Power Unit (GPU): A ground equipment support device that provides electrical aircraft power. H Hangar: A large building at an airport where planes can be stored and maintained. I Incompatible Land Use: Residential, public, recreational, and certain other noise-sensitive land uses that are designated as unacceptable within specific ranges of cumulative (Ldn) noise exposure as set forth in Table 2 of Appendix A of FAR Part 150. Inner Marker: Innermost marker beacon on an instrument landing system (ILS). Instrument Flight Rules (IFR): A set of regulations and procedures permitting qualified and current IFR pilots to penetrate clouds and low-visibility conditions. Aircraft must be equipped with radio and navigation instruments operating under air traffic control flight plans and clearances. Flights are monitored and traffic separated by ATC, usually by radar. (See Visual Flight Rules). Instrument Landing System (ILS): A precision instrument approach system utilizing radio transmitters at the runway ends that provide precise descent and course guidance to the runway, permitting aircraft to land during periods of low ceilings or poor visibility. Itinerant Operation: An arrival or departure performed by an aircraft from or to a point beyond the local airport area. Also defined as all aircraft arrivals and departures other than local operations. K Knot (nautical mile per hour): Most common measure of aircraft speed. 100 knots equals 115 statute miles per hour. (For mph, multiply knots by 1.15.) L Land Use Compatibility: The compatibility of land uses surrounding an airport with airport activities, particularly with the noise from aircraft operations. Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS): An enhancement of the Global Positioning System providing greater navigation accuracy and system integrity. Local Operation: An aircraft operation that remains no more than 25 nautical miles from the departure point, or that terminates at the point of departure, or that does not include a stop of a duration greater than 15 minutes. Touch-and-go operations are local operations. Local Traffic: Aircraft operating in the traffic pattern or within sight of the tower, aircraft known to be departing or arriving from flight in local practice areas, or aircraft executing prac- tice instrument approaches at the airport.
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Glossary of Terms 101 Localizer (LOC): Part of an instrument landing system that provides lateral deviations from a preset course. Low Approach: An approach over an airport or runway following an instrument approach, or a visual flight rules approach including the go-around maneuver in which a pilot intention- ally does not make contact with the runway. M Magnetic Heading: Heading of the aircraft relative to magnetic north; a magnetic heading sensor provides this heading data. Magnetic Variation (MVAR, MAGVAR): Difference between true north and magnetic north, varying with position. Magnetic variation drifts with time. Mean Sea Level (MSL): Altitude expressed as feet above sea level, rather than above local terrain (i.e., AGL). To ignore varying terrain elevations, all navigational altitudes and baro- metric altimeters are based on height above MSL. Only radar altimeters, which measure the distance between the aircraft and the ground at low altitudes, indicate actual height above the ground. Microwave Landing System (MLS): An advanced electronic system of ground-based devices and aircraft avionics that provides the aircraft with lateral, longitudinal, and vertical guidance necessary for an instrument landing. In the United States, MLS technology has been supplanted by GPS. Middle Marker: Marker beacon located where the center of the glideslope is 200 feet above the runway utilized in some instrument landing systems. Military Operation: Operations performed by military groups such as the Air National Guard, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, or U.S. Navy. Military Operations Area (MOA): An airspace established outside of Class A airspace to sep- arate or segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from instrument flight rules traffic and to identify for visual flight rules traffic where these activities are conducted. Minimums: Weather condition requirements established for a particular operation or type of operation--e.g., instrument flight rules takeoff or landing, alternate airport for instrument flight rules flight plans, etc. Missed Approach: A maneuver conducted by a pilot when an instrument approach cannot be completed for a landing. The route of flight and altitude are shown on instrument approach procedure charts. A pilot executing a missed approach prior to the missed approach point (MAP) must continue along the final approach to the MAP. The pilot may climb immediately to the altitude specified in the missed approach procedure. Missed Approach Point (MAP): A point prescribed in each instrument approach procedure at which a missed approach procedure will be executed if the required visual reference does not exist. Mitigation Measure: An action that can be planned or taken to alleviate (mitigate) an adverse environmental impact. Major Airport Development: Airport development on such a scale as to require shifts in pat- terns of population movement and growth, public service demands, and changes in business and economic activity.
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102 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Mode A: The operating mode of onboard radar transponders that transmits a return radio sig- nal to enhance an aircraft's radar return and identify it with one of 4,096 controller-assigned numerical codes. Mode C: The transponder operating mode that also reports aircraft altitude by transmitting data from an encoding altimeter Mode S: Type of secondary surveillance radar (SSR) equipment that provides Mode A and Mode C interrogations, discrete address (Mode S) interrogations from the ground or air, and a data link capability N N-Numbers: Federal government aircraft registration numbers. U.S.registered aircraft num- bers begin with "N," Canadian numbers with "C" or "CF," German numbers with "D," United Kingdom numbers with "G," French numbers with "F," Japanese numbers with "JA," etc. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS): Public-use airports considered neces- sary to provide a safe, efficient, and integrated system of airports to meet the needs of civil aviation, national defense, and the U.S. Postal Service. (Previously called the National Airport System Plan.) National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB): The independent federal agency charged with investigating and finding "probable cause" of transportation accidents. Nautical Mile: Most common distance measurement in aviation, equivalent to 1.15 statute (standard U.S.) miles. Navigation Aid (NAVAID): A device or process to help with navigation, such as a VHF omni- directional range station or a position update. Noise Contours: Lines drawn on a map that connect points of equal noise exposure values. They are usually drawn in 5 dB intervals, such as DNL 75 dB values, DNL 70 dB values, DNL 65 dB val- ues, and so forth. Noise Control Plans: Documentation by the airport sponsor of actions to be taken by the sponsor to reduce the effect of aviation noise. These actions are to be taken by the sponsor either alone or in cooperation with the FAA, airport users, and affected units of local government, with appropriate comments from affected citizens. Alternative actions should be considered, partic- ularly where proprietary use restrictions on aircraft operations are involved. Nondirectional Beacon (NDB): An older radio navigation system in which an automatic direction finder points to the beacon, thus providing a relative bearing. Nonprecision Approach Procedure: A standard instrument approach procedure in which no electronic glideslope is provided, such as with a VHF omnidirectional range, Global Positioning System, or localizer. Nonprecision Instrument Runway: A runway with an instrument approach procedure uti- lizing air navigation facilities, with only horizontal guidance, or area-type navigation equipment, for which a straight-in nonprecision instrument approach procedure has been approved or planned, and no precision approach facility or procedure is planned. Nontowered Airport: An airport without a control tower. The majority of America's 13,000 air- ports are nontowered (only 680 airports have control towers). Nontowered airports are far from being "uncontrolled." Pilots follow traffic pattern procedures and self-announce positions and intentions using the common traffic advisory frequency, usually called the UNICOM frequency.
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Glossary of Terms 103 Notice to Airmen (NOTAM): A notice containing information (not known sufficiently in advance to publicize by other means) concerning the establishment of, condition of, or change in any component (facility, service, or procedure) of, or hazard in, the national airspace system, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. O Obstacle: An existing object, object of natural growth, or terrain, at a fixed geographical loca- tion, or which may be expected at a fixed location within a prescribed area, with reference to which vertical clearance is or must be provided during flight operation. Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ): A volume of space above and adjacent to a runway and its approach lighting system, if one exists, free of all fixed objects except FAA-approved frangible aeronautical equipment and clear of vehicles and aircraft in the proximity of an airplane con- ducting an approach, missed approach, landing, takeoff, or departure. Obstruction: An object that exceeds a limiting height or penetrates an imaginary surface described by current Federal Aviation Regulations (Part 77). Operation: A takeoff or a landing. Outer Marker: Marker beacon located 5 to 7 miles from the end of the runway, and a com- ponent of incompatible land use. P Pilot Controlled Lighting (PCL): A remote system controlled by a pilot to initiate and oper- ate the runway lights. It is typically located at a nontowered airport. Pilot Weather Report (PIREP): Voluntary pilot observation of in-flight weather conditions radioed to air traffic control or a flight service station. Information is used by other pilots to avoid adverse weather and by the National Weather Service to amend or update forecasts. Positive Control Area: (See Class A Airspace) Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI): A lighting system that provides the pilot with a safe and accurate glide slope on final approach to the runway. Precision Approach Procedure: A standard instrument approach procedure in which an elec- tronic glideslope/glidepath is provided--e.g., instrument landing system, microwave landing system, and precision approach radar. Precision Instrument Procedure: A standard instrument procedure for an aircraft to approach an airport in which an electronic glideslope is provided--e.g., an instrument landing system or military precision approach radar. Precision Instrument Runway: A runway with an instrument approach procedure utilizing an instrument landing system, microwave landing system, precision approach radar, or Global Positioning System. Preferential Runway Use (Program): A noise abatement action whereby the FAA Air Traffic Division, in conjunction with the FAA Airports Division, assists the airport sponsor in develop- ing a program that gives preference to the use of a specific runway(s) to reduce overflight of noise-sensitive areas.
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104 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Private Pilot: A certificate that allows a pilot to fly passengers for personal transportation and business. It requires the pilot to be at least 17 years old, have a minimum of 40 hours of flight experience and training (35 hours under Part 141), and pass at least a third-class medical exam, a written exam, and flight test. A private pilot may not "fly for hire or compensation" but may share expenses equally with passengers. Prohibited Area: An airspace area for which flight is prohibited except by prior arrangement with the controlling agency. An example is the P-56 area over downtown Washington, D.C., which prohibits flight over the White House. R Recreational Pilot: A pilot certificate requiring less training than a private certificate. Privileges are limited according to flight within 50 nautical miles of base, carrying no more than one pas- senger; using nontowered airports; and flying during daylight hours only unless restrictions are removed through further training. A recreational pilot may not share expenses. Few new pilots currently choose the recreational certificate. Reliever Airport: An airport serving general aviation aircraft that might otherwise use a congested air carrier airport. Restricted Area: Airspace that (when "active" or "hot") usually excludes civilian aircraft. Examples include airspace for rocket flights, air-to-air combat practice, or ground-based artillery practice. Temporary restricted areas are established for events such as forest fires, natural disas- ters, or major news stories. Flight through a restricted area may be authorized by the "control- ling agency" or by the FAA. Rotating Beacon: A rotating light providing visual guidance for the airport between sunset and sunrise and during times when the reported ceiling or visibility is below basic visual flight rules minimums. Runway (RWY): A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length. Runways are normally numbered in relation to their mag- netic direction, rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees, e.g., Runway 01, Runway 25. Runway Edge Lights: Lights used to define the lateral limits of a runway. Runway End Identifier Lights (REILs): Two synchronized flashing lights, one on each side of the runway threshold, that provide a pilot with a rapid and positive visual identification of the approach end of a particular runway. Runway Heading: The magnetic direction indicated by the runway number. When cleared to "fly/maintain runway heading," pilots are expected to comply with the air traffic control clearance by flying the heading indicated by the runway number without applying any drift correction-- e.g., Runway 4, 040O magnetic heading; Runway 20, 200O magnetic heading. Runway Protection Zone (RPZ): A trapezoidal area at ground level for which the perimeter conforms to the projection on the ground of the innermost portion of the approach surface as defined in Federal Aviation Regulations Part 77. The RPZ is centered on the extended runway centerline and begins at the end of the FAR Part 77 primary surface, terminating below the line where the approach surface reaches a height of 50 feet above the elevation of the runway end. FAA regulations require that RPZs be kept free of obstructions and any uses that might cause an assemblage of persons. Runway Safety Area (RSA): A cleared, drained, graded, and preferably turfed area symmetri- cally located about the runway which, under normal conditions, is capable of supporting snow
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Glossary of Terms 105 removal, firefighting, and rescue equipment and of accommodating the occasional passage of aircraft without causing major damage to the aircraft. Runway Threshold: The beginning of that portion of a runway usable for landing or takeoff. Runway Visual Range (RVR): Visibility along a runway. At major airports it is measured auto- matically by transmissometer. S Special-Use Airspace (SUA): All airspace for which restrictions or prohibitions to flight are imposed for military or government needs (See Military Operations Area, Restricted Area, Prohibited Area). Specialized Aviation Service Operation (SASO): Similar to a fixed-base operator but gener- ally providing a single-service or specialized aeronautical service as opposed to full service or multi-aeronautical service. Standard Instrument Departure (SID): A planned instrument flight rules air traffic control departure procedure printed for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form. SIDs provide transi- tion from the terminal to the appropriate en route structure. Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR): A planned instrument flight rules air traffic con- trol arrival route published for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form. STARs provide transi- tion from the en route structure to an outer fix or an instrument approach fix/arrival waypoint in the terminal area. Stopway: An area beyond the takeoff runway, no less wide than the runway and centered upon the extended centerline of the runway, able to support the aircraft during an aborted takeoff without causing structural damage to the aircraft, and designated by the airport authorities for use in decelerating the aircraft during an aborted takeoff. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP): A stormwater management plan address- ing stormwater discharge from the airport that incorporates best management practices. Straight-In Instrument Approach: An instrument approach wherein final approach is begun without first having executed a procedure turn, and not necessarily completed with a straight-in landing or made to straight-in landing weather minimum. Student Pilot: A pilot training for a private pilot certificate, either before or after the first solo. A student must obtain a third-class medical certificate through an examination by an FAA- designated aviation medical examiner before being allowed to fly solo in a powered aircraft. The medical certificate for a student pilot has a student "license" printed on the back. Surface Movement Guidance and Control (SMGC): A combination of signage, lighting, and markings that allow safer airport operations in low-visibility and normal weather conditions. T Taxi: The movement of an airplane under its own power on the surface of an airport; also, the surface movement of helicopters equipped with wheels. Taxilane: The portion of the aircraft parking area used for access between taxiways, aircraft parking positions, hangars, storage facilities, etc. Taxiway (TWY): A defined path, from one part of an airport to another, selected or prepared for the taxiing of aircraft.
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106 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Terminal Area: A general term used to describe the space of the building used to provide pas- senger service to the traveling public. Terminal Control Area (TCA): (See Class B Airspace) Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS): Procedures for instrument approach and departure of aircraft to and from civil and military airports. There are four types of terminal instrument procedures: (1) precision approach, (2) nonprecision approach, (3) circling, and (4) departure. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA): Radar service that assists with traffic sequencing in some Class D airspace. Pilot participation is voluntary. Threshold: The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing. Touch-and-Go Operation: A practice maneuver consisting of a landing and a takeoff per- formed in one continuous movement: the aircraft lands and begins takeoff roll without stop- ping. A touch-and-go is considered two operations. Traffic Pattern: A standard rectangular flight pattern around the landing runway at an airport. It includes 45-degree or crosswind entry to the rectangle, with downwind, base, and final legs as sides of the rectangle. Standard are 90-degree left turns around the rectangle (a nonstandard right- hand traffic pattern is noted in airport facility directories) with downwind flown at a specified alti- tude, usually 1,000 or 1,500 feet above the airport elevation. At airports with a control tower, the pattern may be modified or short cut according to air traffic control instructions. Transient Aircraft: Aircraft not based at the airport. Transponder: A special onboard 1090 MHz radio transmitter to enhance and code an air- craft's radar return. When interrogated by ground radar, it transmits a return signal that con- trollers can use to identify and tag the flight on their computerized video display radar screen. Paired with an altitude encoder, Mode C transponders also transmit the aircraft's altitude. All aircraft flying in Class B airspace or higher than 10,000 feet are required to have Mode C transponders. Transport Airport: An airport designed, constructed, and maintained to serve airplanes hav- ing approach speeds of 121 knots or higher. True Heading: Heading of the aircraft relative to true north. TSR Part 1452: Federal transportation security regulation for airports. Turbojet Aircraft: An aircraft having a jet engine in which the energy of the jet operates a tur- bine that in turn operates the air compressor. Turboprop: An airplane using a turboprop engine, a jet rather than piston engine connected to a propeller. Such aircraft can be single-engine or multiengine. Turboprop engines are increas- ingly used when more horsepower is needed for speed or payload than the 300 to 400 horsepower available from current light-aircraft piston engines. Turboprop Aircraft: An aircraft having a jet engine in which the energy of the jet operates a turbine that drives the propeller. U Ultralight Vehicle: An aeronautical vehicle operated for sport or recreational purposes that does not require FAA registration, an airworthiness certificate, or pilot certification. An ultra-
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Glossary of Terms 107 light vehicle is primarily a single-occupant vehicle, although some two-place vehicles are author- ized for training purposes. Operation of an ultralight vehicle in certain airspace requires author- ization from air traffic control. Uncontrolled Airport: (see Nontowered Airport) UNICOM: A common, multipurpose radio frequency used at most nontowered airports as the common traffic advisory frequency. The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) coined the term (derived from the words "universal communications") in the 1950s. UNICOM is also used by a fixed-base operator for general administrative uses, including fuel orders, park- ing instructions, etc. Originally 122.8 MHz universally, it now includes 122.7, 123.0, and other frequencies. Urban Growth Management (UGM): The identification and management of the demands on municipal facilities, improvements, or services created by any proposed residential, commercial, industrial, or other type of development. UGM is intended to (1) provide the means for satisfy- ing such demands; (2) identify any harmful effects of development; and (3) protect the jurisdic- tions and their residents against such harmful effects by minimizing the costs of municipal facil- ities, improvements, and services. The intent of UGM is usually not to prevent development or growth, but rather to avoid free or disorganized development or growth in the UGM area, which is generally located in and around the fringe of an urban area. The UGM area is usually either relatively undeveloped or predominantly agricultural and lacks most, if not all, municipal facil- ities, improvements, or services. Utility Airport: An airport designed, constructed, and maintained to serve airplanes having approach speeds less that 121 knots. V VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR): A type of radio beacon on which a tried and tested radio navigation system is largely based. It broadcasts 360 radial signals like spokes in a wheel; equip- ment on the aircraft determines which of these radials the aircraft is on to provide direction to and from an airport or given location. Victor Airway: A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor, the cen- terline of which is defined by VHF omnidirectional range. Visibility: The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of dis- tance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night. Visibility is reported as statute miles, hundreds of feet, or meters. · Flight Visibility--The average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and promi- nent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night. · Ground Visibility--Prevailing horizontal visibility near the earth's surface as reported by the United States National Weather Service or an accredited observer. Visual Approach: An approach to an airport wherein an aircraft on an instrument flight rules flight plan, operating in visual flight rules conditions under the control of a radar facility and having an air traffic control authorization, may deviate from the prescribed instrument approach procedure and proceed to the airport of destination, served by an operational control tower, by visual reference to the surface. Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI): A system of lights arranged to provide visual descent guidance information during the approach to a runway (see also Precision Approach Path Indicator).
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108 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Visual Flight Rules (VFR): A defined set of FAA regulations covering operation of aircraft pri- marily by visual reference to the horizon (for aircraft control) and see-and-avoid procedures (for traffic separation). VFR weather minimums for controlled airspace require at least a 1,000-foot ceiling and three miles visibility except for "special VFR" clearances to operate "clear of clouds." · Marginal VFR--Weather of less than 3,000-foot ceiling and five miles visibility but above the required "1,000 and three" (see Instrument Flight Rules). Visual Runway: A runway intended solely for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures, with no straight-in instrument approach procedure and no instrument designation indicated on an FAA-approved airport layout plan. VORTAC: Collocation of VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and UHF tactical air navigation aid (TACAN) providing distance and bearing to a station; a basic guidance mode, providing lateral guidance to a set of a VOR station and a TACAN station that are collocated. W Wake Turbulence: Turbulent air condition caused by small, tornado-like horizontal whirl- winds trailing an aircraft's wingtips (wingtip vortices). Wake turbulence associated with larger aircraft flying at slow speeds (as on takeoff or landing approach) is the most severe and can cause loss of control for smaller aircraft following close behind. Controllers use defined separation standards to avoid the problem for takeoff, landing, approach, and departure operations. The term includes vortices, thrust stream turbulence, jet blast, jet wash, propeller wash, and rotor wash, both on the ground and in the air. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS): An enhancement to the Global Positioning System providing greater navigation accuracy and system integrity and permitting GPS to be used for precision instrument approaches to most airports. Wind Shear: Large changes in either wind speed or direction at different altitudes that can cause sudden gain or loss of airspeed. Wind shear is especially hazardous when aircraft airspeeds are low on takeoff or landing. Z Zoning: (See Zoning Ordinances) Zoning Ordinances: Ordinances that divide a community into zones or districts according to the present and potential use of properties for the purpose of controlling and directing the use and development of those properties. Zoning is concerned primarily with the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the proportion of a lot that buildings may cover, and the density of population of a given area. As an instrument of plan implementation, zoning deals principally with the use and development of privately owned land and buildings. The objective of zoning legislation is to establish regulations that provide locations for all essential uses of land and buildings and to ensure that each use is located in the most appropriate place. In FAR Part 150 planning, zoning can be used to achieve two major aims: (1) to reinforce existing compati- ble land uses and promote the location of future compatible uses in vacant or undeveloped land and (2) to convert existing noncompatible uses to compatible uses over time.