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19 the type of information provided. Interviewees also reported of 30 transit agencies that documented the number of agencies that questions and comments related to lost and found and that use each type of dissemination media for various types of complaints/suggestions also constitute significant portions of information. The results are shown in Table 6. The percentages the information they provide. Transit call centers at the agen- associated with each dissemination medium in the columns cies that provide paratransit and ridesharing services provide indicate the percentage of transit agencies that utilize each par- related information such as how to apply for paratransit eli- ticular medium for disseminating at least one type of informa- gibility and make trip reservations, in addition to providing tion. For example, 23% of agencies utilize printed materials basic rider information. ("paper"). The numbers within the individual cells of the table show how many agencies--out of the 30 surveyed--utilize a particular medium for disseminating a specific type of infor- 3.1.1.3 Dissemination Methods/ mation. As shown in Table 6, print materials (23%), websites Technologies Utilized (22%), and telephones (19%), are the most commonly used The fact that transit agencies utilize a variety of print and dissemination methods. electronic media for disseminating traveler information to Figure 2 summarizes the results from TCRP Synthesis 48: their customers is well documented in the literature. Both Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems (15) regarding the print and electronic media are developed by agencies per dissemination media used for real-time transit information guidelines set by the ADA and the ADA Accessibility Guide- provided by transit agencies in and outside of the United States. lines (ADAAG), as applicable. (12, 13) A study regarding the In addition to showing that real-time information is more effectiveness of rider communication (14) included a survey common for agencies outside the United States, the results Table 6. U.S. transit agencies' dissemination media by type of information. Dissemination Media (%) On-board electronic sign (1%) Wireless Application Protocol Wireless device (PDA, iPod) (WAP)-enabled device (1%) Public address system (3%) Electronic sign at transit Internet (website) (22%) Mobile telephone (1%) E-mail or page (5%) Static sign at transit stop/station (13%) Telephone (19%) stop/station (3%) Paper (23%) Other (3%) Kiosk (5%) Operational Information: (1%) Next bus/train/ferry arrival/departure 15 15 10 6 3 15 19 1 2 8 2 1 1 time (either real time or scheduled) Detours/delays 23 18 7 8 1 20 22 3 1 5 10 3 4 Vehicle location 1 0 1 2 2 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trip and/or connection time 14 10 2 1 16 16 1 1 6 3 1 1 Fare payment 26 15 0 0 1 24 21 2 1 6 7 1 5 Parking availability 5 1 2 0 0 6 6 1 1 3 3 1 0 General Information: Maps, routes, schedules, and fares 30 22 0 0 0 30 23 0 1 10 5 2 4 Rider's Guide 27 6 24 13 4 1 0 4 Information for disabled riders 26 7 1 1 25 21 1 1 2 4 1 2 Trip planning (including Point A to Point B planning, find closest stop, 10 4 17 20 2 1 3 2 1 4 find service at a location) Safety/Security: Reminders about notifying officials 19 13 5 7 2 13 3 1 0 3 4 0 0 about suspicious packages or activity Evacuation of transit 8 5 2 4 0 5 0 1 3 facilities/vehicles Escalator/elevator outages 1 3 1 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 Amber Alerts 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Source: TCRP Synthesis 68: Methods of Ridership Communication (Table 6, p. 52).