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30 Note: Shaded states have active 511 systems as of March 6, 2009. Source: Federal Highway Administration, March 6, 2009; Figure 8. Summary of 511 deployment. plans to deploy systems. Of the 44 operational systems, 12 cover or public transportation as their first choice. The exceptions specific regions or metropolitan areas. The circles on the are Alaska (ferries) and San Francisco. Additionally, almost map provided in Figure 8 indicate these regional systems none of the 511 systems have the option of speaking with a live (e.g., St. Louis, MO). Interestingly, some of the largest metro- 511 operator, with the exceptions being the Georgia and South politan areas in the United States--including Los Angeles, Florida 511 systems. Chicago, Houston and Dallas--currently are not covered by any 511 system. Transit Agency Participation in 511 Systems The vast majority of 511 systems are operated by state de- partments of transportation (DOTs). Rare exceptions include In order to determine transit agency involvement in the the San Diego and San Francisco Bay Area regional systems, operational 511 systems, each of the 42 systems in the United which are operated by their respective MPOs, the San Diego States was called, using the "backdoor" (standard 10-digit) Association of Governments (SANDAG) and the Metropoli- phone numbers. Table 11 presents these results by system, tan Transportation Commission (MTC). Many of the 511 with transit presence or participation in 511 categorized into systems are not new telephone information systems. These the following three types: (1) general information on transit systems were typically operational for many years providing services (e.g., services provided, service disruptions, the tele- highway information as conventional 10-digit toll-free infor- phone number for the transit agency's customer service line, mation numbers. They became 511 systems when the neces- hours of operation, fares, etc.); (2) the ability to automatically sary programming on the phone switches allowed callers transfer to the transit agency; and (3) real-time transit infor- within the service area to reach the system by dialing 511. mation (e.g., vehicle arrival/departure time estimates). The Early in the federal 511 program, $50,000 was offered to each results can be summarized as follows: state to cover such reprogramming costs. In most cases, the pre-511, 10-digit toll-free phone number was retained, and As of March 2009, 22 of the 42 total 511 systems have no can also be used to reach the system. transit presence or content whatsoever. Perhaps because of their origins as highway/traffic-only sys- Most of these systems provide only highway/traffic infor- tems, almost none of the 511 systems' main menus list transit mation, which may include road-weather information.

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31 Table 11. Transit participation on active 511 systems. Type of Transit Information/Options General Info Call Real- (Service Transfer Time 511 System "Backdoor"/ Disruptions, to Transit Transit 511 System/Service Area Launch Date Local Phone Fares, etc.) Agency Info Cincinnati/ 1. June 2001 513-333-3333 X X Northern Kentucky 2. Nebraska Oc t 2 0 0 1 800-906-9069 None 3. Utah De c 2 0 0 1 866-511-UTAH X X 4. Arizona Mar 2002 888-411-ROAD X X 5. Orlando/Central Florida June 2002 866-510-1930 X 6. Minnesota July 2002 800-542-0220 X X 7. Southeast Florida July 2002 866- 914-3838 X X 8. Iowa No v 2 0 0 2 800-288-1047 None 9. South Dakota Nov 2002 866-MYSD 511 None 10. Kentucky, Statewide Nov 2002 866-RDREPORT None 11. San Francisco Bay Area, CA Dec 2002 866-736-7433 X X X 12. Montana Jan 2003 800-226-7623 None 13. Vermont Jan 2003 800-ICY-ROAD None 14. North Dakota Feb 2003 866-MY ND 511 None 15. Alaska Apr 25, 2003 866-282-7577 X X 16. Maine Ma y 2003 866-282-7578 X X 17. New Hampshire May 2003 866-282-7579 None 18. Washington State July 2003 800-695-ROAD X 19. Oregon De c 2 0 0 3 503-588-2941 None 20. Kansas J an 2 0 0 4 866-511-KDOT None 21. North Carolina Aug 2004 877-511-INNC X 22. Sacramento/Northern CA Sept 2004 877-511-TRIP X 23. Tampa Bay, FL Sept 2004 800-576-3886 X 24. Colorado July 2007 303-639-1111 None 25. Virginia Au g 2 0 0 4 800-578-4111 X X 26. Rhode Island Mar 2005 888-401-4511 None 27. Florida, Statewide Nov 2005 866-511-3352 None* 28. Idaho No v 2 0 0 5 888-432-7623 None 29. Wyoming July 2006 888-996-7623 None 30. Tennessee Au g 2 0 0 6 877-244-0065 None 31. Nevada Au g 2 0 0 6 877-687-6237 None 32. Louisiana De c 2 0 0 6 888-762-3511 None Jacksonville/Northeast 33. Oct 2006 866-511-3352 X Florida 34. San Diego, CA Jan 2007 619-839-0198 X X 35. Southwest Florida Apr 2007 866-511-3352 X 36. St. Louis, Missouri May 2007 877-478-5511 None 37. California, Eastern Sierra May 2007 800-427-7623 None 38. Georgia Au g 2 0 0 7 877-MYGA511 X 39. New Jersey Aug 2007 866-511-NJDT None Boston/Eastern 40. Oct 2007 617-374-1234 X Massachusetts 41. New Mexico Dec 2007 800-432-4269 None 42. New York (Beta Version) Jan 2009 888-465-1169 X X * The Florida statewide system serves as a gateway that can transfer callers to the regional 511 systems in Florida. Although those regional systems include transit information, no transit information is directly accessible on the main, statewide system menu. Nearly all of the 22 systems that have no transit presence lows (note that because some systems have multiple types or information are statewide systems. Most of these of information, the list below does not sum to 20): systems are for large states with relatively low popula- Two have only general transit information (e.g., list the tion densities (e.g., Iowa, Wyoming, and Nevada). The phone number for a transit agency); exceptions are New Jersey and Rhode Island. The re- Seven have only an option to transfer to transit agencies; gional systems that lack transit information are St. Louis Nine have both general transit information and call and California--Eastern Sierras. transfer options; and Of the 20 systems with some form of transit present or con- Three--San Francisco, San Diego, and Maine (Bar tent, the type of information provided is represented as fol- Harbor area)--include real-time transit information.