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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 17 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft Volume 2: Guidebook

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Peter Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of June 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 17 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft Volume 2: Guidebook William Spitz Richard Golaszewski GRA, INC. Jenkintown, PA AND Susan J. H. Zellers Stacy Pollert AEROFINITY, INC. Indianapolis, IN Subject Areas Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 17, VOLUME 2 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 10-04 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11795-1 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009933918 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Cover Photo courtesy of the City of Naples Airport Authority. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 17, VOLUME 2 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-04 PANEL Field of Operations Theodore D. Soliday, City of Naples Airport Authority, Naples, FL (Chair) H. Norman Abramson, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX Tara Harl, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN Paul Meyers, Aviation Management Consulting Group, Inc., Centennial, CO Gary Shafer, Southern Illinois Airport, Carbondale, IL Christy Yaffa, Wyoming DOT, Cheyenne, WY Paul Devoti, FAA Liaison Kenneth Feith, US Environmental Protection Agency Liaison Alex Gertsen, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison (formerly) Jens C. Hennig, General Aviation Manufacturers Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 10-04 by GRA, Inc., Jenkintown, PA. GRA, Inc. was the contractor for this study. Aerofinity, Inc., Indianapolis, IN was a sub-contractor and participated in developing and writing this guidebook. Richard Golaszewski, Executive Vice President at GRA, was the Project Manager. Dr. William H. Spitz, Ph.D., of GRA was the Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Susan J. H. Zellers, P.E., and Stacy Pollert of Aerofinity.

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FOREWORD By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 17: Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft is published as a 2-volume set. Volume 1 provides a Forecast of anticipated fleet activity associated with the newest generation of General Aviation (GA) aircraft over a 5- and 10-year outlook. Vol- ume 2 offers a Guidebook in a user-friendly format that helps airport operators assess the practical requirements and innovative approaches that may be needed to accommodate these new aircraft. This Volume 2 Guidebook will be of interest to airport operators currently serving GA air- craft, as well as those considering the potential effect of incorporating commercial service that may be provided by Very Light Jets (VLJs) and other advanced small GA aircraft at their air- ports. This Guidebook can be used to assess both the practical requirements and the innova- tive options for accommodating these new types of GA aircraft and provides detailed informa- tion for assessing whether airports of various types can currently accommodate advanced new generation aircraft. Airport planners can use this guidebook as a basis for upgrading existing and creating new airport facilities, along with the required services needed. Service providers and industry stakeholders focused on GA activity can use this Guidebook in seeking new busi- ness opportunities in the foreseeable future. Some forecasts predict that an increasing number of new, smaller GA aircraft will take to the skies in the near future. These forecasts suggest that some airports will see an increase in traffic and greater demand for GA infrastructure, facilities, and services. However, according to some aviation industry experts, many of these forecasts appear overly opti- mistic. Airport operators are concerned that the forecasts do not adequately address airport considerations. The fundamental questions for airports are, how much will traffic increase from these aircraft; which airports will experience the traffic increase; and what infrastruc- ture, facilities, and services will be needed. If there is a large increase in aircraft activity as a result of these new aircraft, already busy GA airports will be further congested, and the smallest GA airports may not be prepared to handle this potential increase in activity. Consequently, airports need to know what level of aircraft activity they can expect and what infrastructure, facilities, and services are needed to accommodate the newest generation of GA aircraft adequately. They need information on the likelihood of GA aircraft activity increases at airports by category of airport and geo- graphical location. Moreover, no single resource document summarizes what can and should be done to prepare airport infrastructure, facilities, and services to accommodate the increased activity while maintaining productivity. Under ACRP Project 10-04, a research team led by GRA, Inc., conducted the research with the objectives to (1) forecast GA aircraft activity by category of airport and geograph-

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ical location due to the introduction of the newest generation of GA aircraft and (2) develop a user-friendly guidebook that will help airport operators to (a) estimate the level of activ- ity from these aircraft at their particular airport; (b) assess the effect of these aircraft on their particular airport's infrastructure, facilities, and services; (c) accommodate existing and anticipated demand for facilities and services from these aircraft; and (d) attract new busi- ness from the newest generation of GA aircraft. For the purposes of this project, the newest generation of GA aircraft refers to small-sized (12,500 lbs or less) aircraft with high-technology "all glass" digital cockpits, including light jets, VLJs, and new advanced-technology piston and turbo-prop aircraft. The need for this research began in 200607, when the "hype" surrounding VLJs reached a crescendo. With a significant downshift in the global economy in 20082009, the reduced demand has affected the aviation industry as a whole, particularly the GA market. Nonethe- less, this Forecast and the Guidebook will help airport operators and planners prepare for the next wave of change. An increase in demand for this newest generation of GA aircraft and its effect on airports; the associated facilities; and information related to best plan for future growth, expansion, and potential new opportunities are likely to be needed.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 2 1.2 General Aviation Overview 6 1.3 Purpose 6 1.4 Use of Guidebook 8 Chapter 2 The New Generation of GA Aircraft 8 2.1 VLJ Aircraft Programs 8 2.2 How New Generation Aircraft Compare 9 2.3 Runway Length 10 2.4 Aircraft Noise 11 2.5 Other Attributes 15 2.6 Summary 16 Chapter 3 Projecting Potential Future Activity from New Generation Aircraft 16 3.1 Introduction 17 3.2 Evaluating Potential Demand 17 3.3 ACRP Forecasts for New Generation Aircraft 18 3.3.1 Forecast Results 10 Years Out 20 3.3.2 Further Recommendations for Use of the Forecasts 20 3.4 Summary 20 3.5 Helpful References and Resources 22 Chapter 4 Airport Evaluation Tool 22 4.1 Introduction 22 4.2 Quick Comparison with Existing GA Fleet 23 4.3 Airport Evaluation Tool and Readiness Level 25 4.4 Air Taxi Evaluation Tool and Readiness Level 27 4.5 Summary 28 Chapter 5 Airport Toolbox 28 5.1 Airport Toolbox Organization 28 5.2 Airfield Infrastructure 28 5.2.1 Airport Reference Codes and Minimum Facility Requirements 30 5.2.2 Runway Length 33 5.2.3 Runway Width 34 5.2.4 Wind Coverage 34 5.2.5 Pavement Surface and Strength 34 5.2.6 Runway Clear Areas 35 5.2.7 Runway Lighting 36 5.2.8 Approach Lighting Systems (ALS) 36 5.2.9 Runway Markings 37 5.2.10 Taxiways 37 5.2.11 Wildlife Hazard Management

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38 5.3 Instrument Approach 39 5.3.1 Required Area Navigation (RNAV) Approaches 41 5.3.2 Other Instrument Approach Procedure Improvements/Enhancements 42 5.3.3 Next Generation Air Transportation System 42 5.4 Ground Access 43 5.4.1 Automobile Parking 44 5.4.2 Passenger Pick-up and Drop-off 44 5.4.3 Mode of Ground Transportation 44 5.4.4 Routing Information 45 5.4.5 Signage 45 5.5 Ground Handling Services 46 5.5.1 Core Services 48 5.5.2 Aircraft Parking Aprons 48 5.5.3 Hangar Development 50 5.5.4 Commercial Operations 50 5.6 Landside Development 51 5.6.1 Terminal Facility 51 5.6.2 Other Support Facilities 53 5.7 Summary 53 5.8 Helpful References and Resources 57 Chapter 6 Community Outreach 57 6.1 Introduction 57 6.2 The Audience 58 6.3 The Message 59 6.4 The Medium 60 6.4.1 Presentations 60 6.4.2 Media Relations 61 6.4.3 Aviation Events 61 6.5 Timing of Community Outreach 62 6.6 Addressing Specific Issues 63 6.7 Summary 63 6.8 Helpful References and Resources 65 Chapter 7 Funding Alternatives 65 7.1 Introduction 65 7.2 Federal Grants 66 7.3 State Grants 66 7.4 Airport Revenues 67 7.5 Bonds 67 7.5.1 General Obligation Bonds 67 7.5.2 Revenue Bonds 67 7.6 Private Investment 68 7.7 Privatization 68 7.8 Summary 68 7.9 Helpful References and Resources 69 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Projected Air Taxi Operations