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10 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft Cirrus SR22-G2 Piston Cessna 400 Piston Beech Baron G58 Piston Cessna Grand Caravan Turboprop Eads Socata TBM 850 Turboprop Beech KingAir C90GT Turboprop Eclipse 500 VLJ (no data) Cessna Citation Mustang VLJ Embraer Phenom 100 VLJ Cessna Citation CJ2+ Light Jet Beech Premier IA Light Jet 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Balanced Field Length (ft) Assumes maximum gross weight, sea level, standard day, and dry level hard-surface runway. Source: Conklin & de Decker Aviation Information, Aircraft Cost Evaluator 2008 Vol. I. Figure 2-1. Small GA aircraft balanced field length comparison. for safe takeoffs and landings at a specific airport will depend on all of the variables mentioned above in addition to the specific aircraft type and use. Figure 2-1 indicates that VLJs have short runway capabilities similar to small turboprops. However, for all piston aircraft and for single-engine turboprop aircraft (e.g., the Cessna Grand Caravan and the Eads Socata TBM 850), the BFL numbers in 2-1 reflect the requirements under FAR Part 23 for aircraft weighing under 12,500 pounds; no allowance is made for engine failure or loss of power. By contrast, the BFL numbers for the VLJs, light jets, and twin-engine Beechcraft King Air reflect the more stringent Part 25 requirements, so that if there is a loss of power on take- off, the aircraft can either stop within the remaining runway length or take off on the remaining good engine. Thus, there is a higher margin of safety associated with the Part 25 requirements. In principle, VLJ aircraft do not have to meet the FAR 25 requirements given that they weigh less than the 12,500-pound threshold. However, both Cessna and Embraer have chosen to publish BFL estimates under the more stringent FAR 25 specifications for their VLJ aircraft. With these limita- tions in mind, the estimates in Figure 2-1 show that these VLJs have similar short-field capabilities relative to small GA turboprops. 2.4 Aircraft Noise Certificated noise measurement standards for jet aircraft are based on complicated calcula- tions that account for people's increased annoyance with single-frequency tones. The standard used is the Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) and the amount of associated noise is mea- sured in EPN decibels (EPNdBs). Beginning in 2006, newly certificated jet aircraft must meet the new, more stringent Stage 4 noise limits established by FAA, which are approximately one-third quieter than the old Stage 3 limits. As shown in Figure 2-2, the Eclipse 500 and Cessna Citation Mustang VLJs easily meet these standards and are significantly quieter than existing light jets. (Data were not available for the Embraer Phenom 100.)