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30 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft Table 5-2. Airport reference code (ARC) characteristics. Aircraft Approach Airplane Design Category Speed (knots) Group Wingspan (ft) Tail Height (ft) A <91 I <49 <20 B 91 - <121 II 49 - <79 20 - <30 C 121 - <141 III 79 - <118 30 - <45 D 141 - <166 IV 118 - <171 45 - <60 E >166 V 171 - <214 60 - <66 VI 214 - <262 66 - <80 Source: FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design. The most fundamental piece of infrastructure at an airport is the runway (i.e., no runway, no airport). In Key Runway Questions addition to runway length, other important character- Is the runway long enough and wide istics include runway width, pavement strength, run- enough for the critical design aircraft? way safety and object-free zones, lighting, markings, What is the heaviest aircraft the runway can and visual approach aids. accommodate? What is the wind coverage? Table 5-3 and Figure 5-1 indicate the minimum What is the condition of the runway facilities to accommodate all of the new generation pavement? aircraft in ARC B-I and B-II with varying instrument Are the approaches clear of obstacles? approach minimums. Each element of the runway Are the markings appropriate and clear? infrastructure is described in more detail below, Are all the lights functioning properly? including instructions on how to adjust the runway length based on the airport location (elevation and mean maximum daily temperature.) 5.2.2 Runway Length To determine the appropriate runway length for a specific airport, the airport's physical attri- butes need to be considered as well as the type of operations to be conducted. The design runway length at an airport is based on the critical aircraft using the airport. The FAA defines critical air- craft as the aircraft or group of aircraft with the most demanding requirements making at least 500 annual operations (takeoffs and landings). This equates to approximately one takeoff and landing each business day. Four primary physical attributes affect required runway length: Airport elevation, Mean maximum daily temperature, Maximum difference in runway centerline elevation, and Wet or dry pavement. In addition, instrument approach requirements and operating regulations may increase the minimum runway length requirements. Appendix 16 in FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, identifies the minimum requirements to support an instrument approach. The minimum require- ments are described in more detail in Section 5.3, Instrument Approach. Operations conducted under FAR Part 91 Sub-part K (fractional operators) or FAR Part 135 are required to include an added margin of safety for the aircraft to be stopped within 60% of the available runway length (80% if the airport is an approved Destination Airport in that operator's manual.) The best method to determine minimum runway length requirements is coordination with operators of the critical aircraft. Other runway length guidance sources include manufacturers' aircraft handbooks and FAA AC 150/5325-4B,

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Airport Toolbox 31 Table 5-3. Minimum facility requirements for new generation GA aircraft. All Small All Small Minimum Aircraft Aircraft with Facilities with and Precision Minimum All Small Improved Improved Approach Facilities Aircraft Minimums Minimums Minimums ARC B-I B-II B-I B-II B-II Approach Less than Not less than 1 mile Not less than mile Minimums mile Representative Cessna Cessna CJ2+ Cessna Mustang Cessna CJ2+ Design Aircraft Mustang Maximum Takeoff Small aircraft only, <12,500 lbs Weight Runway Length, sea 3,200 feet 3,360 feet 4,200 feet 3,200 feet1 3,360 feet2 level paved1 paved2 paved1 Runway Width 60 feet 75 feet 60 feet 75 feet 100 feet 120' wide 150' wide 120' wide 150' wide 300' wide Runway Safety 240' beyond 300' beyond 240' beyond 300' beyond 600' beyond Area (RSA) ends ends ends ends ends 250' wide 500' wide 250' wide 500' wide 800' wide Object Free Area 240' beyond 300' beyond 240' beyond 300' beyond 600' beyond (OFA) ends ends ends ends ends Runway Protection Zone (RPZ) inner 1,000' x 2,500' 250' x 1,000'x 450' 1,000' x 1,700'x 1,510' width by length by x 1,750' outer width Obstacle Free Zone 300' wide 200' 250' wide 200' beyond ends (OFZ) beyond ends Recommended Medium Intensity Runway Lights (MIRL) Lighting Markings Nonprecision Precision Approach Lights2 None ODALS or MALS1,3 MALSR1,3 Recommend Recommend Required3 Required3 Parallel Taxiway 25' wide 35' wide 25' wide 35' wide Runway Centerline to Taxiway 150' 240' 150' 240' 300' Centerline This table reflects the minimum requirements; an airport operator may choose to exceed these requirements to allow for greater future expansion potential. 1 FAA AC 150/5300-13, Table A16-1 2 Cessna manufacturer data 3 For LPV based minima, approach lights are recommended, not required. Source: FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design. Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design. If operations under Part 91(k) or Part 135 occur at the airport, then those additional safety factors need to be included in the design run- way length. Figure 2-1 showed the balanced field length of various small aircraft ranging from less than 2,000 feet to approximately 4,500 feet at sea level on a standard day (59F). Additional data (e.g., temperature, elevation, and gradient) to reflect local conditions is needed to put these runway lengths into practice for a specific airport and type of operations (FAR Part 91, 91(k) or 135). For many airports, the touted short field capability of VLJs is of particular interest because it could represent the potential for first-time jet use. However, in real-world operations, everyday

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32 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13, Airport Design. Figure 5-1. Minimum facility requirements for new generation GA aircraft.