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Airport Toolbox 37 tion from the runway threshold. The most basic runway markings include the runway designa- tion (numbers) and a centerline. Additional markings, which are based on the type of instrument approach, include threshold markings, aiming points, and runway edge markings. For an air- port to accommodate new generation GA aircraft with instrument approach capability, at least nonprecision runway markings are recommended (see Figure 5-5). 5.2.10 Taxiways The runway allows an aircraft to land and take off, but other airfield infrastructure increases the margin Key Taxiway Questions of safety and utility of an airport. Taxiways facilitate Is a parallel taxiway in place? the movement of aircraft on an airport, enhance air- If a parallel taxiway is not in place, are port capacity, and support instrument approaches. additional taxiways needed to support the The provision of a parallel taxiway avoids the need desired instrument approach? for aircraft to back-taxi on a runway. This increases What is the condition of the taxiway pave- the margin of safety at an airport and increases the ment and markings? amount of time the runway is available for arriving Is the taxiway lighted or does it have and departing aircraft. Per FAA AC 150/5300-13, Air- reflectors? port Design, Appendix 16, any instrument approaches with visibility minimums less than 1 mile require a parallel taxiway. There are two types of infrastructure to support aircraft taxiing operations: taxiways and taxi- lanes. Taxilanes are located within apron and hangar areas, where aircraft are assumed to be mov- ing more slowly; thus, the FAA allows for some reduced clearances from other objects. Taxiways are used to provide access to all other areas of the airport. Table 5-4 summarizes taxiway standards for new generation GA aircraft. 5.2.11 Wildlife Hazard Management In addition to providing the appropriate infrastructure, the airport operator also needs to pro- vide a good operating environment for users of the facility; this includes minimizing potential hazards at the airport. The more activity and the larger the aircraft using the airport, the more important wildlife hazard management becomes. Airports certified under FAA Part 139 are required to consider wildlife hazard identification and mitigation as part of the certification process. Other airport operators may want to consider wildlife hazard management as well. As identified in the joint FAA-US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Hazard Management Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-1J, Standards for Airport Markings. Figure 5-5. Recommended markings.