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Glossary A AC. See Advisory Circular. ACIP. See Airport Capital Improvement Program. ACRP. See Airport Cooperative Research Program. ADG. See Airplane Design Group. ADS-B. See Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast. Advisory Circular (AC). A series of publications from the FAA detailing the requirements for various facets of aviation and airports. AIP. See Airport Improvement Program. Air Taxi Operations. See On-Demand Services. Air Traffic Activity Data System (ATADS). An FAA database that contains the official National Airspace System air traffic operations data available for public release. Aircraft Approach Category. A grouping of aircraft defined by FAA based on 1.3 times the stall speed at maximum certificated landing weight. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA). A not-for-profit trade organization dedicated to general aviation was incorporated on May 15, 1939. Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF). A special category of firefighting that involves the response, hazard mitigation, evacuation, and possible rescue of passengers and crew of an aircraft involved in an airport ground emergency. Airfield. Runways, taxiways, and other facilities that accommodate the takeoff, landing, and movement of aircraft on the ground. Airplane Design Group (ADG). A grouping of airplanes defined by FAA based on wingspan and tail height. Airport Capital Improvement Program (ACIP). Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP). An industry-driven, applied research pro- gram focused on developing solutions to problems faced by airport operators. ACRP is managed by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies and sponsored by the FAA. Airport Improvement Program (AIP). The Airport Improvement Program (AIP) provides grants to public agencies--and, in some cases, to private owners and entities--for the planning 69

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70 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft and development of public-use airports that are included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS). Airport Layout Plan (ALP). A set of drawings showing the existing conditions and planned improvements for the airport. Airport Reference Code (ARC). A system used by the FAA to relate airport planning and design criteria to the operational and physical characteristics of the aircraft intended to use the airport. Also see Aircraft Approach Category and Airplane Design Group. Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT). ALP. See Airport Layout Plan. ALS. See Approach Lighting Systems. AOPA. See Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Approach Lighting Systems (ALS). A system of lights starting at the runway threshold and extending outward into the approach zone providing visual information to a pilot on runway alignment and location relative to the runway threshold. The system is classified as high-intensity or medium-intensity based on the types of lamps and equipment used. Apron. A defined area on an airport intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance. APVs. See Approach Procedures with Vertical guidance. ARC. See Airport Reference Code. Area Navigation (RNAV). A general method of navigation where a pilot can choose any course within a network of navigation beacons, rather than navigating directly between beacons. ARFF. See Airport Rescue and Fire Fighting. ASNA. See Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979. ASOS. See Automated Surface Observation System. ATADS. See Air Traffic Activity Data System. ATCT. See Airport Traffic Control Tower. Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS). Equipment that takes and broadcasts automated weather readings. Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS). Equipment that takes and broadcasts automated weather readings. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). The ADS-B system is a crucial com- ponent of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). It provides surveillance and improved situational awareness simultaneously to pilots and air traffic controllers. ADS-B is designed to improve the safety, capacity and efficiency of the national airspace system while providing a flexible, expandable platform to accommodate future air traffic growth. ADS-B is surveillance, like radar, but offers more precision and additional services, such as weather and traffic information. ADS-B provides air traffic controllers and pilots with much more accurate information to help keep aircraft safely separated in the sky and on runways. Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 (ASNA). Established Airport Noise Compatibility Planning (14 CFR Part 150) or part 150. Did not change the legal authority of states and local governments to control uses of land within their jurisdictions, i.e., zoning.

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Glossary 71 AWOS. See Automated Weather Observation System. A-Weighted Sound Level (dBA). A noise metric designed to account for people's sensitivity to noise at different frequencies; applicable in noise measurement standards for turboprop and piston aircraft. Also see Effective Perceived Noise Level. B Balanced Field Length (BFL). A metric that measures the runway length required for an aircraft to successfully complete a takeoff with a failed engine; not directly applicable to all aircraft types. BFL. See Balanced Field Length. C Cargo Service Airports. As defined by the FAA, any airports that are served by aircraft pro- viding cargo-only transportation with a total annual landed weight of more than 100 million pounds. An airport may be both a Commercial Service and Cargo Service Airport. Catchment Area. The surrounding geographic area from which an airport draws users. Charter Operations. See On-Demand Services. Commercial Service Airports. As defined by the FAA, publicly owned airports that have at least 2,500 passenger boardings (enplanements) in a calendar year and which have scheduled passenger service. Commercial Service Airports are further broken down as follows: Primary Airports--more than 10,000 annual boardings Large Hubs--1% or more of total U.S. annual boardings Medium Hubs--0.25%1% of total U.S. annual boardings Small Hub--0.05%0.25% of total U.S. annual boardings Nonhubs--More than 10,000, but less than 0.05% of total U.S. annual boardings Nonprimary Commercial Service Airports--At least 2,500, but no more than 10,000 annual boardings. Also see Cargo Service Airports, Reliever Airports, and General Aviation Airports. Critical Aircraft. That aircraft or combination of aircraft with the most demanding require- ments at a particular airport making at least 500 annual operations (takeoffs and landings). D Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL or Ldn). The predicted average noise level in an area around the airport for a typical 24-hour period. A weighing factor equivalent to a penalty of 10 decibels is applied to operations between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. dBA. See A-Weighted Sound Level. Deicing. The removal of ice deposited on any object, especially as applied to aircraft icing, by heating, chemical treatment, and mechanical rupture of the ice deposit. DNL. See Day-Night Average Sound Level.

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72 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft E Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL). A noise metric that uses a sophisticated frequency weighting scheme to determine perceived noise levels; applicable in noise measurement stan- dards for jet aircraft. Also see A-Weighted Sound Level. Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS). A real-time aircraft tracking system used by the FAA to monitor and direct aircraft traffic flow in the National Airspace System (NAS). EPNL. See Effective Perceived Noise Level. ETMS. See Enhanced Traffic Management System. F FAR. See Federal Aviation Regulations. FAR Part 135 (Operating Requirements: Commuter and On Demand Operations and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft). Aviation regulations, with more stringent standards than Part 91, governing commuter and on-demand (charter) operations. FAR Part 150 (Airport Noise Compatibility Planning). Aviation regulations governing how airport operators must assess and mitigate noise on and around airports. Specific FAA guidance is provided in Advisory Circular 150/5020-1. FAR Part 23 (Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Acrobatic and Commuter Airplanes). Aviation regulations governing airworthiness requirements for aircraft in the cited categories, which are aircraft that have a maximum take-off weight of no more than 12,500 pounds (19,000 pounds for Commuter aircraft). FAR Part 25 (Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes). Aviation regulations, more stringent than Part 23, governing airworthiness requirements for Transport aircraft, generally defined as those that have a maximum take-off weight greater than 12,500 pounds. FAR Part 91 (General Operating and Flight Rules). Aviation regulations governing general operating rules for all aircraft. Sub-Part K contains operating rules specifically for fractional ownership programs. FBO. See Fixed-Base Operator. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The federal agency responsible for the safety and efficiency of the national airspace and air transportation system. Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR). Regulations issued by the FAA governing all aviation activities in the United States; part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, organized into separate sections called "Parts," e.g., Part 91. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The federal agency responsible for the safety and efficiency of the national highway system. Federal Transit Administration (FTA). The federal agency responsible for the safety and effi- ciency of the national transit system. FHWA. See Federal Highway Administration. Fixed-Base Operator (FBO).

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Glossary 73 Flight Service Station (FSS). FOD. See Foreign Object Damage. Foreign Object Damage (FOD). Any damage attributed to a foreign object that can be expressed in physical or economic terms which may or may not degrade the product's required safety and/or performance characteristics. Fractional Ownership. Shared ownership of an aircraft. The aircraft is usually part of a fleet operated by a professionally managed company that provides pilots, maintenance, insurance, and other services. Fractional owners usually have on-demand access to available aircraft in the fleet for a pre-determined number of hours per year. Regulations governing fractional ownership operations are under FAR Part 91, Sub-Part K. FSS. See Flight Service Station. FTA. See Federal Transit Administration. G GA. See General Aviation. GAMA. See General Aviation Manufacturers Association. GCO. See Ground Communications Outlet. General Aviation Airports. Any airports not defined by the FAA as Commercial Service, Cargo Service or Reliever; includes privately owned, public-use airports having 2,500 or more annual boardings and which have scheduled passenger service. General Aviation (GA). All types of aviation other than that performed by air carriers and the military. General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA). Founded in 1970, the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) fosters and advances the general welfare, safety, interests and activities of general aviation by promoting a better understanding of general avia- tion and the role it plays in economic growth and in serving the transportation needs of com- munities, companies, and individuals worldwide. GAMA represents over 65 of the world's leading manufacturers of fixed-wing general aviation airplanes, engines, avionics, and components. In addition to building nearly all of the general aviation airplanes flying worldwide today, GAMA member companies also operate fleets of air- planes, fixed-based operations, pilot /technician training centers, and maintenance facilities worldwide. Glass Cockpit. Refers to an aircraft cockpit that has primarily electronic instrument displays rather than mechanical gauges. Global Positioning System (GPS). A series of satellites that transmit a signal used for navigation. GPS. See Global Positioning System. GPU. See Ground Power Unit. Ground Communications Outlet (GCO). Ground Power Unit (GPU). A power unit on the ground which can be used in place of power generated by an aircraft engine. Also called power carts.

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74 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft H High-Intensity Runway Lights (HIRL). Lights placed along the edge of a runway generally at 200-foot intervals. The lights are designed to help pilots identify the edge of the surface prepared for landings and takeoffs. This is the most intense runway edge lighting system and is most commonly found at high-activity airports having wider runways and precision instrument approaches. HIRL. See High-Intensity Runway Lights. Hub Airport. Can refer to an airport that is part of a "hub-and-spoke" network where a commer- cial airline provides high frequencies of scheduled service to the hub in order to aggregate demand from the spokes and then distributes that demand to their final destinations. Alternatively, can refer to the FAA system for categorizing airports--see Commercial Service Airports. I IET. See Interactive Employee Training. IFR. See Instrument Flight Rules. Instrument Approach. A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a land- ing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually. Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Regulations and procedures for flying an aircraft by referring only to the aircraft instrument panel for navigation. Also see Visual Flight Rules. Instrument Landing System (ILS). A precision instrument approach system. An ILS consists of two radio transmitters that serve a specific runway end; one radio beam is the localizer and the other is the glide slope. The localizer indicates to pilots whether they are left or right of the correct alignment for approach to the runway. The glide slope indicates the correct angle of descent to the runway (glide slopes vary from 2 to 3). An ILS serves only one runway end. Instrument Operation. An aircraft operation flown in accordance with an IFR flight plan or as one where IFR separation between aircraft is provided by air traffic controllers. Instrument Runway. A runway equipped with electronic and visual navigation aids for which a precision approach with vertical guidance, or non-precision approach procedure having straight-in landing minimums is available. Interactive Employee Training (IET). K Knots. Nautical miles per hour, equal to 1.15 statute miles per hour. L LAAS. See Local Area Augmentation System. Landside. Facilities that support the movement of people and commerce between the air transportation system and the roadway network. Ldn. See Day-Night Average Sound Level. LIRL. See Low-intensity runway lights.

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Glossary 75 LNAV/VNAV. See Lateral Navigation/Vertical Navigation. Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). A ground-based augmentation to GPS that focuses its service on the airport area (approximately a 2030 mile radius) for precision approach, depar- ture procedures and terminal area operations. It broadcasts its correction message via a very high frequency (VHF) radio data link from a ground-based transmitter. LAAS will yield the extremely high accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary for Category I, II, and III precision approaches and will allow for flexible, curved approach paths. LAAS demonstrated accuracy is less than 1 meter in both the horizontal and vertical axis. Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV). An instrument approach that uses GPS and WAAS to provide both vertical and horizontal guidance. Minimums are established based on airport infrastructure and surrounding terrain and obstacles. LPV. See Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance. M Medium-Intensity Runway Lights (MIRL). Lights placed along the edge of a runway, generally at 200-foot intervals. The lights are designed to help pilots identify the edge of the surface prepared for landings and takeoffs. Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). A transportation policymaking organization made up of representatives from local government and transportation authorities. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). The general concept of a metropolitan area is that of a large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of social and economic integration with that core. Metropolitan areas comprise one or more entire counties, except in New England, where cities and towns are the basic geographic units. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan areas for purposes of collecting, tabulating, and publishing federal data. Metropolitan area definitions result from applying published standards to Census Bureau data. A metropolitan area identified as a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) has a population of one million or more and also has separate component areas (PMSAs--primary metropolitan statistical areas) meeting statistical criteria and supported by local opinion. Minimums. A set of conditions specified for operations of aircraft during IFR approach and departure under adverse weather conditions. MIRL. See Medium-Intensity Runway Lights. MPO. See Metropolitan Planning Organization. MSA. See Metropolitan Statistical Area N NAS. See National Airspace System. NATA. See National Air Transportation Association. National Air Transportation Association (NATA). An organization representing aviation service businesses such as fixed-base operators, charter providers, aircraft management compa- nies including those supporting fractional shareholders, maintenance and repair organizations, flight training and airline service companies. Founded in 1940.

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76 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft National Airspace System (NAS). National Business Aircraft Association (NBAA). An organization for companies that rely on general aviation aircraft to help make their businesses more efficient, productive and successful. The Association represents more than 8,000 Member Companies of all sizes and located across the country. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NCDC is the world's largest active archive of weather data. NCDC produces numerous climate publications and responds to data requests from all over the world. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), one of the first environmental laws ever written, requires federal agencies to consider the environ- mental impacts of proposed federal projects that could significantly affect the environment. National Geodetic Survey (NGS). NOAA's NGS defines and manages a national coordinate system. This network, the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS), provides the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a multitude of scientific and engineering applications. Committed to making transportation and navigation safer, NGS conducts aerial photography surveys near airports in the United States and its possessions to position obstructions and aids to air travel. NGS develops Federal standards for geodetic surveys and helps to coordinate surveying methods. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS). The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) identifies more than 3,400 existing and proposed airports that are significant to national air transportation and thus eligible to receive federal grants under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP). It also includes estimates of the amount of AIP money needed to fund infrastructure development projects that will bring these airports up to current design standards and add capacity to congested airports. The FAA is required to provide Congress with a 5-year estimate of AIP eligible development every 2 years National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). See National Geodetic Survey. NBAA IFR Range. A distance metric that measures the maximum range of an aircraft with all passenger seats occupied and allowance for landing at a 200-mile alternate location; applicable to turboprop and jet aircraft. Also see VFR Range. NEPA. See National Environmental Policy Act. NextGen. See Next Generation Air Transportation System. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen or NGATS). The transformation of the ground-based air traffic control system of today to a satellite-based system of the future. NGATS. See Next Generation Air Transportation System. Noise Contours. Lines drawn on a map surrounding a noise source indicating constant energy levels of noise exposure. Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) is usually the metric used by the FAA to describe community exposure to noise. O Object Free Area (OFA). A two-dimensional ground area centered on a runway, taxiway, or taxilane centerline which is clear of objects, except for objects that need to be located in the OFA for air navigation or aircraft ground-maneuvering purposes.

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Glossary 77 Object Free Zone (OFZ). A three-dimensional volume of airspace which protects for the transition of aircraft to and from the runway. The OFZ clearing standard precludes taxiing and parked airplanes and object penetrations, except for frangible navigation aid (NAVAID) loca- tions fixed by function. Additionally, vehicles, equipment, and personnel may be authorized by air traffic control to enter the area using the provisions of Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, paragraph 35. The runway OFZ and when applicable, the inner-approach OFZ, and the inner- transitional OFZ, comprise the OFZ. OFA. See Object Free Area. OFZ. See Object Free Zone. Also referred to as Obstacle Free Zone. On-Demand Services. Non-scheduled air services, generally referring to commercial entities that provide air travel via charter or air taxi. Traditional air charter usually involves exclusive rental of an entire aircraft for a fixed hourly rate plus charges for repositioning (if an aircraft must be flown from a remote location to the preferred pick-up spot) and overnight/waiting times. "Air taxi" is a generic term that can include charter or other forms of on-demand services; recently it has been used to describe aircraft rentals where all costs are built into the hourly rate and no separate fees are charged for repositioning or overnight/waiting times. "Per-seat on-demand" goes even further by charging not for the entire aircraft, but on a per-seat basis--similar to purchasing a ticket from a commercial airline, but there is no fixed flight schedule. The operation of on-demand services is generally governed by FAR Part 135 regulations. Also see Fractional Ownership. Operation. A departure or arrival at an airport. There are two types of operations--local and itinerant. Local operations include arrivals and departures of aircraft which operate in the local traffic pattern or within sight of the tower and are known to be departing for or arriving from flights in local practice areas within a 20-mile radius of the airport and/or control tower; plus simulated instrument approaches or low passes at the airport executed by any aircraft. Itinerant oper- ations include all aircraft arrivals and departures other than the local operations described above. P PAPIs. See Precision Approach Path Indicators. Per-Seat On-Demand Operations. See On-Demand Services. Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)/Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI). A navigational aid which visually identifies the glide path to the runway. PAPI/VASI lights project red and white beams from the approach end of the runway. Precision Approach Path Indicators (PAPIs). R Regional Jet (RJ). Generally describes short-haul commercial jet aircraft with approximately 3590 seats. REIL. See Runway End Identifier Lights Reliever Airports. Airports designated by the FAA to relieve congestion at Commercial Service Airports and to provide improved general aviation access; may be publicly or privately owned. Required Navigation Performance (RNP). A method of navigation involving a performance specification that an aircraft must meet before the intended flight path can be flown; also includes a monitoring and alerting function in case the performance specification is not met.

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78 Airports and the Newest Generation of General Aviation Aircraft Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). The Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) coordinates the U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) research programs and is charged with advancing the deployment of cross-cutting technologies to improve the U.S. transportation system. As directed by Congress in its founding legislation, RITA leads DOT in: Coordinating, facilitating and reviewing the Department's research and development programs and activities; Advancing innovative technologies, including intelligent transportation systems; Performing comprehensive transportation statistics research, analysis and reporting; and Providing education and training in transportation and transportation-related fields. RITA. See Research and Innovative Technology Administration. RJ. See Regional Jet. RNAV. See Area Navigation. RNP. See Required Navigation Performance. RPZ. See Runway Protection Zone. RSA. See Runway Safety Area. Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL). Two synchronized flashing lights, one on each side of the runway threshold, which provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of a particular runway. Runway Protection Zone (RPZ). An area off the runway end (formerly the clear zone) used to enhance the protection of people and property on the ground. Runway Safety Area (RSA). The RSA is an integral part of the runway environment. RSA dimensions are established in AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design and are based on the Airport Reference Code (ARC). The RSA is intended to provide a measure of safety in the event of an aircraft's excursion from the runway by significantly reducing the extent of personal injury and aircraft damage during overruns, undershoots and veer-offs. Runway. A defined area on an airport prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Runways are normally numbered in relation to magnetic direction. S single wheel (SW) SW. See single wheel. SWIM. See System Wide Information Management. System Wide Information Management (SWIM). A National Airspace System (NAS)-wide information system that supports Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) goals. T Taxilane. The movement area within an aircraft parking area or hangar area used for access between taxiways and aircraft parking positions. Taxiway. A defined path established for the taxiing of aircraft from one part of an airport to another. Taxiways are planned and constructed primarily to allow aircraft movement to and

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Glossary 79 from the runway system and to provide a connection between the runways and apron areas on an airport. TERPS. See Terminal Instrument Procedures. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). Threshold. The beginning of that portion of a runway useable for landing. Transportation Security Administration (TSA). TSA. See Transportation Security Administration. U Ultra High Frequency (UHF). USDA. See U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) UHF. See Ultra High Frequency. V VASIs. See Visual Approach Slope Indicators. Very High Frequency (VHF). Very Light Jet (VLJ). Small single- or twin-engine jet airplane weighing less than 10,000 pounds, generally capable of seating three to six passengers. VFR Range. A distance metric that measures the maximum range of an aircraft with all pas- senger seats occupied; applicable to piston aircraft. Also see NBAA IFR Range. VFR. See Visual Flight Rules. VHF. See Very High Frequency. Visual Approach Slope Indicators (VASIs). Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Regulations and procedures for flying an aircraft using visual cues under certain meteorological conditions. Also see Instrument Flight Rules. VLJ. See Very Light Jet. W WAAS. See Wide Area Augmentation System. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). System of satellites and ground-based stations that provide GPS signal corrections that increase position accuracy.