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The New Generation of GA Aircraft 9 Table 2-1. Overview of VLJ aircraft development programs. Typical Seating Capacity Aircraft Frame Engines (Crew/Passengers) Current Program Status Aircraft certified in Sep 2006; 146 total Cessna Citation deliveries thru 2008; target annual Mustang Aluminum Twin -- Pratt and Whitney Canada 2/4 production of 150 First test flight in April 2006; engine switch Diamond D-Jet Carbon fiber Single -- Williams International 1/4 in 2008; certification expected in 2009 Aircraft certified in Sep 2006; 261 total deliveries thru 2008; company declared bankruptcy in Nov 2008, liquidation Eclipse 500 Aluminum Twin -- Pratt and Whitney Canada 2/4 announced in Feb 2009 Aircraft certified in Oct 2008; 2 total deliveries thru 2008; target annual Embraer Phenom 100 Aluminum Twin -- Pratt and Whitney Canada 2/4 production of ~90 Composite / First test flight in 2003; certification HondaJet Aluminum Twin -- GE Ho nd a 2/ 5 expected in 2010 First test flight in July 2008; certification PiperJet Aluminum Single -- Williams International 2/4 expected in 2010 Source: Manufacturer websites. as of early 2009, only the Cessna Citation Mustang, Embraer Phenom 100, and Eclipse 500 had reached actual production status (the company producing the Eclipse 500 was in bankruptcy liqui- dation proceedings as of February 2009). Figures 2-1 through 2-8 show how these VLJ designs com- pare with other existing piston, turboprop, and light jet aircraft (including new generation aircraft). For reference purposes, popular traditional aircraft (e.g., the Beechcraft Baron G58 piston, the Cessna Grand Caravan turboprop, and the Beechcraft C90 King Air turboprop) are included as well. Diamond D-Jet VLJ for the personal market Source: Wikimedia Commons Adrian Pingstone, 2005 2.3 Runway Length Different runway lengths are required for different aircraft and for different aircraft uses. Under FAR Part 135, an aircraft must be fully stopped within 60% of the available runway length (80% if the airport is an approved Destination Airport in the operator's manual.) For both takeoffs and landings, runway length requirements are affected by many operating conditions and variables, including runway elevation and gradient, temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, surface conditions, aircraft load factor and payload. Figure 2-1 compares the runway requirements for various small GA aircraft using the Balanced Field Length (BFL) metric. Although this is a useful metric, the graph is meant only to allow one to compare the relative requirements between different aircraft. The actual runway length required Table 2-2. VLJ exterior dimensions and weight. Maximum Take-off Aircraft Length (ft) Wingspan (ft) Height (ft) Weight (lbs) Cessna Citation Mustang 40.5 43.2 13.5 8,645 Diamond D-Jet 35.1 37.6 11.7 5,110 Eclipse 500 33.0 37.2 11.0 5,950 Embraer Phenom 100 42.0 40.3 14.2 10,472 HondaJet 41.7 39.9 13.2 9,200 PiperJet 33.8 44.2 15.8 #N/A Source: Manufacturer websites.