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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 22 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Helping Airport and Air Carrier Employees Cope with Traumatic Events

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Peter Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of June 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 22 Helping Airport and Air Carrier Employees Cope with Traumatic Events Kimberly A. Kenville Rosanne B. McBride James A. Higgins Thomas V. Petros Warren C. Jensen Eleanor Yurkovich UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA Grand Forks, ND Subject Areas Planning and Administration Safety and Human Performance Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 22 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 06-01 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11797-5 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009934848 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 22 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor ACRP PROJECT 06-01 PANEL Field of Human Resources Ken Jenkins, American Airlines, Fort Worth, TX (Chair) Amy Armstrong, Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority, Nashville, TN Stephen Formanski, US Department of Health and Human Services, Philadelphia, PA Tom Murphy, Human Resiliency Institute at Fordham University, Bellingham, WA Chris Rhoads, The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey--LaGuardia Airport, Flushing, NY Jaya Varma, VA Medical Center, St. Cloud, MN Bruce Landry, FAA Liaison Sharon W. Bryson, National Transportation Safety Board Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 06-01 by the Department(s) of Aviation, Psychology, Medicine and Nursing at the University of North Dakota (UND). UND was the contractor for this study, with the Office of Research, Development and Compliance serving as the Fiscal Administrator. Dr. Kimberly A. Kenville, C.M., Associate Professor of Aviation was the Principal Investigator and Proj- ect Director. The co-authors of this report are Dr. Rosanne B. McBride, Assistant Professor of Family & Community Medicine; Mr. James A. Higgins, Assistant Professor of Aviation; Dr. Thomas V. Petros, Pro- fessor and Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor of Psychology; Dr. Warren C. Jensen, Professor of Avi- ation and Aerospace Medical Examiner; and Dr. Eleanor Yurkovich, Professor of Nursing.

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FOREWORD By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 22: Helping Airport and Air Carrier Employees Cope with Traumatic Events is a resource manual that provides valuable insight and practical guidance to address the dif- ficult emotional and psychological implications in response and exposure to traumatic events. These traumatic events can be the result of human-made accidents, acts of terrorism, or natural disasters that have occurred at, in the vicinity of, or resulting from the operation of an air carrier at an airport. This resource manual will be of assistance and value to airport management and administrative staff responsible for the well-being of their employees. For those airport and air carrier staff with first-hand experience in preparing for, responding to, and manag- ing human-made or natural disaster events, this resource manual will be helpful in their advance planning and mitigating the emotional impacts before, during and after such trau- matic events. It will serve as a guide to help understand and recognize the symptoms and signs for directing help to those impacted and how they may develop the resiliency to over- come the trauma. This manual will also be of help to representatives of agencies and other notable national, regional, or local entities directly involved with the psychological impact of similar events. Human resiliency or the ability to bounce back after a psychological set-back is a valu- able commodity for airports and air carriers. Catastrophic events, such as human-made accidents or attacks or natural disaster events can have long-term effects on employees that may disrupt their ability to perform even routine tasks. The ability of airport and air carrier employees to recover from a disastrous event with minimal psychological trauma is critical to business productivity and continuity of operations. Thus, there is a need to promote human resiliency among airports and air carriers. It was determined that research is needed to further guide airports and air carriers to enhance employees' ability to cope with the psychological effects of a traumatic event. Airports and air car- riers can then adopt strategies and implement a variety of practices before, during, and after such events to improve and ensure employees' ability to cope with the event. This approach can mitigate the psychological effects of a traumatic event and expedite a return to normal operations. The objective of this research was to develop a resource manual of human-impact considerations and practices for airport and air carrier managers related to human-made accidents or attacks, or natural disaster events. The manual rationalizes the need for air- port and air carrier preparedness and describes critical considerations and steps that can be taken to mitigate employee psychological trauma before, during, and after such dis- tressing events.

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Under ACRP Project 06-01, the University of North Dakota conducted this research to address the critical issues faced by the airport and air carrier employees in reaction to, and their ability to maintain resiliency in the aftermath of a traumatic event. This topic, formu- lated under the category of Human Resources, is the first of its kind under the Airport Co- operative Research Program.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction and Background 3 Introduction 3 Background 4 Disaster Readiness 5 Aviation Requirements--Disaster/Emergency Planning 7 Critical Incident Stress Management--Aviation 8 Procedures Following an Aircraft Disaster 9 Mental Health Options 9 Employees Assistance Programs 10 Organizational Structure and Communication Systems 10 Human Continuity through Crisis 11 What is Psychological Trauma and What Causes It? 12 Psychological Reactions to Traumatic Events 12 Post-Traumatic Stress and Human Reactions to Trauma 13 Early Intervention Issues and Strategies in the Acute Stages Following a Traumatic Event 14 Treatment Strategies 14 Individual and Community Resilience and Exposure to Traumatic Circumstances 17 Chapter 2 Recommendations 17 State-of-the-Art Model for Disaster Management 17 Introduction to the Planning Stage 19 Mental Health Recovery Planning and Development 20 Five Essential Intervention Principles 21 Response to Actions to Assist Psychological Recovery 23 Chapter 3 Case Studies 23 1. Airports Helping Airports 24 2. Leadership, Communication, and "Continuity of Care" 26 3. A View from Those with Experience 28 4. Innovative EAP Builds Employee Resilience 29 5. Home Grown Resilience 30 6. Example Mental Health Recovery Plan 40 Appendix A Comprehensive Literature Review 57 Appendix B Research Methodology 59 Appendix C Data Analysis 68 References and Bibliography 73 Acronyms