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Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Project Delivery Method 37 stakeholder input. The builder's lack of input in DBB means that there will be little opportunity to take advantage of builder knowledge of sustainable design, and in certain cases, the owner may not achieve its sustainability goals (e.g., getting a LEED certificate for the project). CMR With CMR, the owner has a unique opportunity to realize economic returns for sustainable systems performance as well as to use sustainable construction experience as an evaluation fac- tor for the selection of a builder. With this project delivery method, sustainable construction features are more likely to be implemented because of the cooperative nature of the owner/ constructor contracts. The contractor's early involvement in the design process can help in performing meaningful industry-based, cost-benefit analyses for various LEED components. DB The owner can clearly articulate expectations regarding sustainability by assigning weight to sustainability in relation to other factors in the DB evaluation plan. This can be done with either a best-value process or QBS. The design schedule could, however, impact public participation and thereby limit social equity issues. Due to the normally time-consuming processes associated with municipal and state requirements for mandatory announcement and the convening of public hearings, certain sustainability measures--such as wetlands mitigation and avoidance of unde- veloped areas--raise concerns for eminent domain and brown-fields redevelopment that can impact time performance. There is some evidence that the use of DB may hamper the objective of achieving LEED certification. This is due to the perception of risk by the DB contractor when considering whether to bid on a DB project with LEED goals. The owner needs to be careful to define the project scope and goals clearly to ensure reasonable competition, especially if LEED certification is desired. Public Policy/Regulatory Issue Summary An airport has little if any ability to change public policy or regulatory issues. These issues include specific legal or governing body policy constraints on project delivery method use and legislative requirements for public works projects. Many of these issues are essentially go/no-go factors that may eliminate a delivery method from any further consideration in the decision-making process (e.g., methods not allowed per state statute or local governing ordinance). While some issues dis- cussed in this section are found to have minimal impacts on decision-making (e.g., DBE impacts) there are some other issues that strongly affect project delivery method selection. Competition and local talent is one of these issues. The researchers found that competition and availability of local talent are of relatively high importance for decision-makers and can sometimes become a driving decision-making factor. Other Issues The "Other Issues" category consists of issues that are important to project success but not categorized previously in this chapter. Issue 18: Adversarial Relationships Airport projects can be hampered by conflicts between parties to the design and construction contracts. The higher the level of adversarial relationships in a project, the more likely it is that the project will suffer from cost, schedule, and quality problems. Delivery methods define the rela- tionships among all project parties. If the project delivery method encourages project parties to
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38 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods work together as a team to achieve project goals and characteristics, it is considered a benefit. Con- versely, if the project delivery method increases the possibility of adversarial relationships, it is considered a detriment. DBB This delivery method can create an adversarial relationship among the parties to the contract-- mainly between the owner and the construction contractor (Irwin 2003, Mahdi and Alreshaid 2005, Walewski et al. 2001). Furthermore, the engineer and the contractor may assume adversar- ial roles as one is in charge of approving the other's work. The division of responsibilities may also result in these two parties blaming each other in case of project failures or during major disputes (Halpin 2006). CMR The inclusion of the construction contractor during the design phase in e CMR builds con- structive teamwork and facilitates project team formation (Irwin 2003, Minchin et al. 2007) although it requires extensive coordination of consultants and/or subcontractors. DB Having a single point of responsibility for design and construction, as in the DB method, decreases the potential for conflict between the engineer and constructor (Halpin 2006, Harrington- Hughes 2002, Walewski et al. 2001). Although in DB there should be less conflict between the designer and the constructor (since they are both on the same team and they are jointly responsi- ble to the owner for the success of the project.), instances of internal disputes are sometimes observed in DB projects (Touran et al. 2009). It is worth mentioning that design-builders may be deterred from submitting claims to owners who have future DB projects because they will want to avoid decreasing their competitiveness for future projects awarded on a QBS system by making the owner angry with a claim. Issue 19: Construction Claims The effect of each project delivery method in exposing the airport to potential conflicts and claims is discussed below. If a delivery method can reduce the number of construction claims, that delivery method is a favorable choice, and if it increases the possibility of construction claims, it is an unfavorable choice. DBB This method typically has the highest occurrence of claims and disputes. Disputes often arise over authority, responsibility, and quality (Walewski et al. 2001). Furthermore, as the owner is responsible for design completeness, errors and omissions claims are common in DBB projects. Some contractors may bid low to win a job and try to enhance their final profit margin through claims and change orders, especially if design errors or ambiguities are pres- ent in the construction documents. Studies have shown that this delivery method resulted in the highest rate of cost growth, which could be an indication of a large number of claims (Konchar and Sanvido 1998). CMR Assuming a well-structured contract, there is less possibility for claims and disputes in CMR once a GMP is agreed upon and the contract is signed. Because the CMR is present during the design process, there is less need for information and clarification of the design documents. Some professionals think that this method results in very few construction claims (Touran et al. 2009). The QBS methodology creates an effective deterrent to initiating claims by requiring the CMR to