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48 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Step 4. Review Project Delivery Method Advantages and Disadvantages Step 4 of the project delivery decision involves a critical examination of the advantages and disadvantages of each remaining delivery method. There is no single project delivery method that is appropriate for every project. The objective of the critical examination is to determine how well each project delivery method aligns with project goals, project characteristics, airport char- acteristics, policy/regulatory issues, and lifecycle requirements. In Step 4, airports examine 19 pertinent issues that affect project delivery method selection (the 19 issues are described in detail in Chapter 3 of this guidebook) and rate the appropriateness of each delivery method in relation to each issue. For each issue, an Advantages/Disadvantages Form and an Advantages/Disadvantages Summary Table are provided. To determine the appropriateness of each project delivery method in relation to a particular issue, airports should understand the issue, analyze the issue as it relates to the delivery methods, and complete the Issue Advantages/Disadvan- tages Summary Table. These three actions are described in more detail in the following: Understand the issue. Read the brief description of each issue. Refer to Chapter 3 for an expanded description of the issue if needed. Analyze the issue as it relates to the delivery methods. Using the Advantages/Disadvantages Form provided, read the issue statements listed for each pertinent issue for each delivery method. After reading the issue statements, determine whether the issue statement is an advan- tage or disadvantage as it applies to the particular project in question. Please note that an issue statement may be either an advantage or a disadvantage depending on the characteristics of the project, the owner, or the market. Again, refer to Chapter 3 for an expanded description of the issue if needed. Analyze each issue statement, determine whether the issue statement is an advan- tage or disadvantage, and document the determination in the Advantages/Disadvantages Form with any relevant notes. Note: it is not necessary to label each issue statement as an advantage or disadvantage, focus only on the important issue statements under each pertinent issue for the proj- ect in question. Also note that one can add to the columns in Tables 4-4 through 4-22. This happens if, in a project, the decision-maker decides to include more than one type of DB procurement method. Refer to the section in Chapter 2 titled "Definitions of the Delivery Methods" for procurement options. DB procurement options considered in the Tier 1 approach are primarily Best-Value Procurement with Fixed Price and Qualifications-Based Procurement with Negotiated Price. DB Low Bid is an option, but it is not recommended in this guidebook for the majority of DB proj- ects. Note that for each pertinent issue, the same issue statements will be considered for any DB procurement option. The user will respond to only those issue statements that are relevant to his choice of DB procurement option. If, for whatever reason, the decision-maker decides to con- sider more than one type of DB, he can copy the sections on DB and fill in each copy with one DB procurement option in mind. Also, a new column can be added to Tables 4-4 through 4-22 to allow a comparison of those DB options with other project delivery methods. Note that if any of the summary tables (Tables 4-4 through 4-22) include more than one DB option, this will need to be carried over to Table 4-23, in which the summary ratings from each issue analysis are recorded. Complete the Issue Advantages/Disadvantages Summary Table. Review the advantages and disadvantages associated with each delivery method and analyze their implications. In the Issue Advantages/Disadvantages Summary Table, rate the appropriateness of each project delivery method using the following system: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method)

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 49 Project-Level Issues Issue 1: Project Size/Complexity This issue concerns the airport project's dollar value and complexity based on the type of project. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Project Size/Complexity Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DBB has been shown to work on projects of all sizes and levels of complexity, but the research case studies found that airports tend to select DBB on smaller projects. As projects grow in size and complexity, the amount of owner staffing required to oversee DBB can become very large. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR has been shown to work on projects of all sizes and levels of complexity, but the research case studies found that airports tend to select CMR on larger and more complex projects. On projects of large size and complexity, CMR can use multiple bid packages to optimize responses from proposers, but this approach results in more complexity in management. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DB has been shown to work on projects of all sizes and levels of complexity, but the research case studies found that airports tend to select DB on larger and more complex projects. Some owners have noted that DB can facilitate better management of large projects due to the single source of responsibility. As projects grow in size and complexity, there can be large peaks in owner staffing requirements with DB (e.g., during RFP development, during design review, etc.). As projects grow in size and complexity, best-value procurement will require design-builders to assume more risk, and QBS procurement will make it more challenging to negotiate prices.

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50 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Table 4-4. Project size/complexity advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 1. Project Size/Complexity Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 2: Schedule Compression From the owner's viewpoint, a delivery method can affect project schedule in two different ways: (1) shortening the schedule and (2) controlling schedule growth. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Schedule Compression Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DBB is the base case and will take the longest of the three delivery methods. If an airport is willing to take on coordination responsibility, DBB projects can be awarded to multiple prime contractors to speed the process. Studies have shown that, on average, DBB is slower than CMR and DB. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR can be used to facilitate fast- tracking or the ability to bid multiple design packages. There is a risk that overlapping design and construction packages may create delays if not properly coordinated. Fast-tracking schedules require owner effort in design and construction reviews and do not guarantee time savings. Studies have shown that, on average, CMR is faster than DBB, but slower than DB.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 51 Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Provides a single point of responsibility (DB contractor) for schedule compression. All case studies showed that airports selected DB with the primary goal of compressing the schedule. A compressed schedule will require airport effort in design and construction reviews. Studies have shown that, on average, DB is faster than both CMR and DBB. DB procurement methods do not significantly affect schedule compression. Table 4-5. Schedule compression advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 2. Schedule Compression Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 3: Schedule Growth Control This issue concerns the ability of each delivery method to control and prevent growth in a project's schedule. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Schedule Growth Control Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Research on project delivery methods suggests that DBB is likely to yield the highest schedule growth due to change orders There is a lack of opportunity to compress a project schedule if problems occur due to the linear nature of DBB. Studies have shown that, on average, DBB has more schedule growth than CMR and DB.

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52 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR facilitates fast-tracking, or the ability to bid multiple design packages, which can be helpful in limiting schedule growth if problems occur during project development. There are risks that overlapping design and construction packages may create schedule growth if not properly coordinated. Studies have shown that, on average, CMR has less schedule growth than DBB, but more than DB. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Provides a single point of responsibility (DB contractor) to combat schedule growth. DB projects using a lump sum contract typically fix project end dates early in the project development process when compared to DBB or CMR. Unlike DBB and CMR, owners will be shielded from schedule-related change orders stemming from errors and omissions in plans. A compressed schedule will require airport effort in design and construction reviews. Studies have shown that, on average, DB has less schedule growth than both CMR and DBB. DB procurement methods do not significantly affect schedule growth control. Table 4-6. Schedule growth control advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 3. Schedule Growth Control Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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Issue 4: Early Cost Precision Early and precise project cost estimation is always sought by airports. This issue concerns the effect of each delivery method on accurately predicting a cost estimate. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Early Cost Precision Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Construction costs are not fixed (or locked in) until design is 100% complete, but costs are known at bid time, before construction begins. Constructability advice and contractor innovations are not available to save cost until post bid. The DBB process is prone to change orders and cost growth after award. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR can be used in conjunction with a GMP pricing structure, which can be useful in negotiating and controlling costs. Costs will be known earlier than with DBB, but perhaps not as early as with DB. CMRs generally have experienced estimating and construction staff that can help to develop reliable estimates earlier in the process. If a GMP pricing structure is used, owners should have experience in estimating and negotiating prices. If the airport/funding agency requires that the subcontractors be selected through low-bid procurement, the construction manager may be unwilling to agree to GMP before all subcontractors' bids have been received. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Costs will be known earlier in the project delivery process when compared to DBB or CMR. If a lump sum pricing structure is used, costs will be fixed early in the project development process, but constructors must develop prices before plans are 100% complete and therefore must assume some risk in pricing. If a GMP pricing structure is used, owners should have experience in estimating and negotiating prices. If the airport/funding agency requires that the subcontractors be selected through low-bid procurement, the construction manager may be unwilling to agree to GMP before all subcontractors' bids have been received.

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54 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Table 4-7. Early cost precision advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 4. Early Cost Precision Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 5: Cost Control Cost control is a project performance criterion and can drive owners to select a particular delivery method according to its ability to (1) reduce total project costs and (2) minimize proj- ect cost overruns. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Cost Control Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage With the exception of change orders, costs are known at bid time, before construction begins. Research suggests that, on average, DBB is likely to yield the highest cost growth due to change orders. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR can be used in conjunction with a GMP pricing structure, which can be useful in negotiating and controlling costs. If open book pricing can be used, all costs will be known by the owner. If multiple bid packages are used, the overall project cost could grow if later bid packages cost more than estimated. Early constructor involvement or construction advice can lead to cost savings through value engineering and constructability reviews. If a GMP pricing structure is used, owners should have experience in estimating and negotiating prices.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 55 Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Studies have shown that, on average, DB has been shown to have lower average cost growth than DBB or CMR. Unlike DBB and CMR, owners will be shielded from cost-related change orders stemming from errors and omissions in plans. If open book pricing can be used, all costs will be known by the owner. The integrated nature of DB teams can lead to cost savings through inherent value engineering and constructability reviews. If a GMP pricing structure is used, owners should have experience in estimating and negotiating prices. Table 4-8. Cost control advantages/disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 5. Cost Control Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 6: Risk Management/Allocation This issue concerns methods for coping with the uncertainties that are inherent in each proj- ect delivery method. The overarching goal should be to select the project delivery method that does the best job of allocating project risks to the parties in the best position to manage them. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Risk Management/Allocation Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DBB provides historically well-defined and well-understood risk allocation. Prescriptive designs and specifications allow for greater detail in risk allocation. Constructor cannot participate in risk management or risk allocation decisions during design. Conflicts can exist in risk allocation between separate design and construction contracts. Constructor's ability to manage risk is constrained by low-bid procurement.

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56 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Construction manager understands and participates in risk allocation and the management process during design. Prescriptive designs and specifications allow for greater detail in risk allocation. Risk management process can be more complex due to separate design, construction, and construction management contracts. Risks for costs can be shared by the construction manager and the airport through the use of a GMP structure. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Single point of responsibility for risk management in design and construction. Design-builder owns risk for design errors and omissions. Risks must be allocated through conceptual design and performance specifications, so the owner may lose some ability to participate in the risk management process. Risks for costs can be shared by the construction manager and the airport through the use of a GMP structure. Airport risks for scope creep and cost growth can be transferred to the design- builder through best-value, fixed-price procurement. Table 4-9. Risk management/allocation advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 6. Risk Management/Allocation Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 57 Issue 7: Lifecycle Costs Delivery methods can influence costs in the operation and maintenance phase. This issue focuses on the opportunities or barriers that each delivery method provides with regard to life- cycle costs. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Lifecycle Costs Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The airport can control lifecycle costs through completed design and performance specifications. There is little opportunity for constructor input into lifecycle costs. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR has all the benefits of DBB, plus the airport can leverage the construction manager's input into lifecycle costs. If CMR is employing a fast-track schedule, lifecycle costs may be difficult to address in detail. If lifecycle performance criteria are not well understood during the development of the GMP, lifecycle issues may be difficult to incorporate into the final product. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The airport can use performance criteria to set lifecycle performance standards and rely on design-builder innovation to achieve these standards. If lifecycle issues are difficult to define through performance criteria, a GMP pricing structure could allow for more owner input than a fixed-price option. Table 4-10. Lifecycle costs advantages/disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 7. Lifecycle Costs Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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58 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Issue 8: Maintainability As with lifecycle issues, there can be advantages and disadvantages to each delivery method with regard to how maintainability is achieved. This issue concerns these advantages and dis- advantages as they relate to the owner's ability to specify quality and ease of maintenance. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Maintainability Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The opportunity to view completed plans before award allows airports to review maintenance issues in designs. There is little opportunity for constructors to have input into maintenance issues. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR has all the benefits of DBB, plus the airport can leverage the construction manager's input into maintenance issues. If CMR is employing a fast-track schedule, maintenance issues may be difficult to address in detail. If maintainability issues are not well understood during the development of the GMP, they may be difficult to incorporate into the final product. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The airport can use performance criteria to set maintainability performance standards and rely on design-builder innovation to achieve these standards. The airport can emphasize maintainability issues through performance criteria and best-value award factors. If maintainability issues are not well understood at the procurement stage, they will not be incorporated into the DB contract. Some DB contracts can incorporate maintenance warranties from the design- builder.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 61 Issue 10: Airport Control of Project An airport's ability to control the details of design and construction varies with each project delivery method. (Note that cost control and time control are described in other issues.) Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Airport Control of Project Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The use of prescriptive specifications and complete designs at the time of award provides airports with the most control over the project. Separate design and construction contracts provide clear checks and balances. With additional control can come added activities and responsibility for airport staff. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The CMR method benefits from early constructor involvement and also has the benefit of separate design and construction contracts that give an owner control over design details. Airport control of CMR delivery requires more effort due to the use of multiple design packages and the need for a GMP pricing structure. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The transfer of design liability lessens the need for airport control over design. Award at a conceptual design level may mean that the airport will lose control over the details of the final design depending on the owner involvement program. Use of QBS and a GMP pricing structure can give the airport more control if it is willing to fix the GMP in the later stages of design development.

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62 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Table 4-13. Airport control of project advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 10. Airport Control of Project Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 11: Security Security imposes another level of technical complexity and a potentially high level of liability on all airport projects. Airport security affects both the design phase and the construction phase. This issue concerns the multiple effects of security requirements on airport projects and how each project delivery method is impacted by and impacts security requirements. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Security Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DBB offers the highest level of flexibility to the owner during the design phase. The low-bid award can make security- related changes difficult to negotiate during construction. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The ability of the CMR to work with the designer can allow for efficiency and flexibility in addressing security issues. The point at which the GMP is negotiated can influence efficiency and flexibility. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The integration of designer and constructor can allow for efficiency and flexibility in addressing security issues. In a fixed-price DB process, security- related changes may be difficult to negotiate during construction. If a GMP is used, the point at which the GMP is negotiated can influence efficiency and flexibility.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 63 Table 4-14. Security advantages/disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 11. Security Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 12: Control of Impact on Passengers and Operations This issue concerns the ability of each delivery method to allow the coordination of construc- tion activities with airport operations management in order to minimize construction impacts. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Control of Impact on Passengers and Operations Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The airport's control over the design and construction packaging can help to minimize impacts on operation and passenger flow. Post-award changes in the construction schedule due to airport operations may be difficult to negotiate. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Additional CMR experience in design can help minimize impacts on operation and passenger flow. Having one CMR contract to oversee multiple bid packages may assist the airport in appropriately phasing the project to minimize impact. The airport and the CMR must have a clear understanding of roles and responsibilities with regard to these controls. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DB provides a single source of responsibility for controlling the impact of the project on airport operations that can be tied to performance criteria in both the project's design and construction schedules. The airport will have less control over the constructor than in the other methods. If a GMP is used, the point at which the GMP is negotiated can influence the airport's input into operations.

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64 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Table 4-15. Control of impact on passengers and operations advantages/disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 12. Control of Impact on Passengers and Operations. Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 13: Third-Party Stakeholder Input to Design and Construction This issue concerns each project delivery method's ability to promote coordination and project- specific agreements with third parties involved in the project or affected by it--political entities, utilities, adjacent communities, and so forth. This issue also concerns the opportunities afforded by the delivery method to the owner for coping with community input. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Third-Party Stakeholder Input to Design and Construction Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Separate design and construction phases provide an opportunity to get stakeholders' inputs before the commencement of construction. The use of complete plans and prescriptive specifications facilitates third-party agreements. The opportunity for stakeholder changes in design can cause delay in the project and add to the costs in the form of change orders. Expediting third-party agreements in the DBB process can be cumbersome if it is required. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The construction experience of the construction manager can help facilitate stakeholder input. Construction managers can help facilitate third-party agreements. Stakeholder input can make GMP negotiation troublesome if not managed correctly. Construction managers typically do not guarantee costs that stem from problems with third-party agreements.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 65 Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The owner can require the DB contractor to include a public information and outreach program to facilitate communities' inputs. Design-builders can be innovative in helping gain community involvement. Any third-party change after the award of a fixed price or the negotiation of a GMP can be costly or difficult to negotiate. Design-builders can use innovative methods to assist in obtaining third-party agreements. Table 4-16. Third-party stakeholder input to design and construction advantages/disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 13. Third-Party Stakeholder Input to Design and Construction Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not Applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Public Policy/Regulatory Issues Issue 14: Competition and Local Talent This issue concerns how each project delivery method affects the level of competition among potential bidders, especially whether or not a project delivery method leverages local competition. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Competition and Local Talent Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The airport benefits from a large pool of potential bidders and high level of competition. There may be issues that follow low-bid procurement such as a higher probability of request for change orders, disputes, and claims.

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66 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage QBS factors can be applied to select only the most highly qualified construction managers. The presence of a constructor early in the project may give the owner less competitive leverage when pricing construction. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage QBS factors can be applied to select only the most qualified design-builders. Proposal package size and bid preparation costs can decrease the number of qualified bidders. Opposition from public-sector employees, unions, or other interested parties can exclude the DB method from consideration (see Step 3. Review Go/No-Go Decision Points). Table 4-17. Competition and local talent advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 14. Competition and Local Talent Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 15: DBE/Small Business Impacts Delivery methods may facilitate fair competition for DBEs for airport contracts and reduce burdens on small businesses. The effect of each delivery method on promoting participation by DBEs and small businesses is evaluated under this issue. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--DBE/Small Business Impacts Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Airports can include DBE requirements in both design and construction requirements. DBE involvement is known at the time of award for design and construction. The low-bidding environment may harm the future viability of DBE companies.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 67 Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Airports can include DBE requirements in both design and construction requirements. DBE involvement is known at the time of award for design and construction. Due to the phased nature of CMR contracts, final DBE involvement may not be known until the project is ultimately completed. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Airports can include DBE requirements in the procurement selection factors for design and construction requirements. Owners can set DBE requirements, but because all subcontractors are not known at the time of award, there is a risk that design-builders may not achieve the DBE goals they specify in their proposals. The use of a fixed-price procurement process early in the project development process, as well as the use of a GMP negotiation later in the process, will not facilitate the identification of a DBE. Table 4-18. DBE/small business impacts advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 15. DBE/Small Business Impacts Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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68 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Issue 16: Legal and Statutory Constraints This issue concerns the interactions between each delivery method and governing regulations. Due to constant changes in state and local laws, airports should check all the relevant codes in order to determine the legality of each delivery method at the time when possible delivery meth- ods are studied for a project. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Legal and Statutory Constraints Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage All states are authorized to use DBB. Labor agreements are generally not an issue. Open bidding procedures are typically not constrained by public law. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Some states allow more flexible procurement regulations with CMR, which can be advantageous in appropriate situations to expedite project development. Some state airports are not authorized to use CMR or need to get extra approvals (see Step 3. Review Go/No-Go Decision Points). Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Some states allow more flexible procurement regulations with DB, which can be advantageous in appropriate situations to expedite project development. Some state airports are not authorized to use DB or need to get extra approvals (see Step 3. Review Go/No-Go Decision Points). Table 4-19. Legal and statutory constraints advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 16. Legal and Statutory Constraints Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 69 Issue 17: Sustainability and LEED Certification Sustainable design is becoming ever more important in achieving overall sustainability goals for projects. This issue concerns project delivery method effects on achieving sustainable design goals (and, if the owner desires, LEED certification). Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Sustainability and LEED Certification Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Airports can work with designers to incorporate sustainable designs into complete designs through prescriptive specifications. Airports can assume liability when prescribing construction methods. The process provides little opportunity for constructability reviews to ensure that sustainable designs can be constructed efficiently and are not cost prohibitive. There is little opportunity or incentive for the constructor to do more than what is specified in terms of sustainable construction practices. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage CMR has all the benefits of DBB, plus the airport can leverage the construction manager's input into sustainable design issues. The use of separate bid packages can create barriers in the integration of sustainable solutions if not approached correctly. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage The airport can emphasize sustainable design issues through performance criteria and best-value or QBS award factors. Integration of the design and construction team can enhance the constructability of designs. If sustainable design issues are not well understood at the procurement stage, they will not be incorporated into the DB contract. The airport may not be involved in all design decisions.

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70 A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods Table 4-20. Sustainability and LEED certification advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 17. Sustainability and LEED Certification Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Other Issues Issue 18: Adversarial Relationships The extent to which a delivery method can minimize adversarial relationships on a project team varies depending on the nature of the project and the owner's experience with the delivery method. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Adversarial Relationships Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Roles and responsibilities in a DBB contract are well understood in the industry. DBB can create an adversarial relationship between parties, primarily between the owner and the construction contractor. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Inclusion of the construction manager in the design process can align team members and lessen adversarial relationships. Negotiation of GMP can create an adversarial situation if the process is not well understood and well managed. Design-Build (DB) Please specify procurement system: (____________________________________) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Inclusion of the designer and constructor on the same team can lessen adversarial relationships. Due to the loss of control over the details of design, DB requires a high level of trust between the owner and design- builder. Without this trust, DB can become adversarial.

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Tier 1--Analytical Delivery Decision Approach 71 Table 4-21. Adversarial relationships advantages/ disadvantages summary. Issue DBB CMR DB 18. Adversarial Relationships Key: Most appropriate delivery method Appropriate delivery method Least appropriate delivery method X Not applicable (discontinue evaluation of this method) Comments ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Issue 19: Construction Claims The effect of each delivery method on airport exposure to potential conflicts and claims is addressed under this issue. Advantages/Disadvantages Form--Construction Claims Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage DBB has well-understood legal precedents for construction claims. DBB historically has the highest occurrence of claims and disputes, which often occur in the areas of authority, responsibility, and quality. The low-bid environment can provide incentives for a constructor to file claims, particularly if there is any ambiguity in the plans. Construction Manager at Risk (CMR) Issue Statements Advantage Disadvantage Having the constructor on the team early during design can lessen the likelihood of disputes and claims regarding design. Since design and construction contracts are separate, the potential for disputes and claims regarding design still exist. If multiple bid packages are not managed correctly, the coordination of these bid packages can result in claims.